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USS Elrod Decommissioning Ceremony

Christopher Elrod (Son of Johan Dider Elrod) and wife Aaltje Soelle

Christopher Elrod Sr Grave

Christopher Elrod

Born: 29 Jan 1721 Conewago Creek, Landcaster, Pennsylvania, United States

Died: 29 Jan 1785 Hope, Forsyth, North Carolina, United States

Burial: 31 Jan 1785 MORAVIAN Cemetery, Hope near Clemmons, Forsythe County, North Carolina, United States — in Clemmons, NC.

Altie Aaltje Soelle

Aaltje Elrod (Soelle)

Born: 20 Oct 1724 Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Died: 17 Sep 1804 Hope, Forsyth, North Carolina, United States

Burial: MORAVIAN Cemetery, Hope near Clemmons, Forsythe County, North Carolina, United States — in Clemmons, NC.

Old Hope Moravian Church Cemetery

MORAVIAN Cemetery, Hope near Clemmons, Forsythe County, North Carolina, United States — in Clemmons, NC. — in Clemmons, NC.

Old Hope Cemetery Hand Drawn Map

Map to the MORAVIAN Cemetery, Hope near Clemmons, Forsythe County, North Carolina, United States — in Clemmons, NC. — in Clemmons, NC.

Aerial View Old Hope Cemetery

MORAVIAN Cemetery, Hope near Clemmons, Forsythe County, North Carolina, United States — in Clemmons, NC. — in Clemmons, NC.

Christopher Elrod of Maryland was among those who moved to the Muddy Creek basin around 1750.



Memoirs (husband of Aaltje Soelle Elrod)

The following account of Christopher Elrod, Sr. is copied from the entry in the First Congregation Church Book, the entry having been made at the time of his death which occurred January 29, 1785:

Christopher Elrod was born January the 29th, 1721, in Pennsylvania and was brought up a Lutheran. In the year 1743, 26th of May, he married Aaltje Soell, the present widow, which marriage was blest by God with 12 children, to whom 10 are yet alive, belonging all to our congregation and society. From Pennsylvania he moved to Manakasy in Maryland, and from thence to North Carolina in 1751, settling himself on the Yadkin. Hitherto as he often mentioned, he was an industrious and hard working man who feared God and was true, as he thought, to the principles of his religion; but he lived in proud conceit, and knew nothing of heart sorrow. The first time, as he remembered, that his heart was truly touched by our Savior was in a sermon delivered by the Rev. Bishop Spangenberg to the people that were fled for fear of the Indians to the Bethara Mill Fort, in the year 1759. From this he grew uneasy and became concerned for his soul’s salvation and sought acquaintance with the Brethren. The Brethren Soelle and Utley, who went about in the country to preach the gospel, visited him frequently and stayed at his house, so as all those who went about in quest of souls for our Saviour were always kindly received by him, and could refresh themselves after their toil and trouble, with his family. On the 4th of April, 1773, he was received into the congregation at Friedburg, and January 22, 1774, he partook for the first time of the Holy Sacrament with the congregation there. In the process of time he promoted the building of an English school and meeting house here in Hope with all his might, and rejoiced greatly when in the year 1780 an English Brethren’s congregation was established here. From that time he was a member thereof. He served this little congregation with the gifts which the Saviour bestowed on him; was an active member of our committee these four years, and his desire was that young and old might prosper for our Saviour. He had a hot and fiery temper, and could often fall hard to others, by his positiveness and absoluteness, yet he was conscious thereof and soon made up again because he loved to live in peace with all men. He was strong and healthy in constitution, complaining seldom of any ailment, yet of late he had an intimation as it were of his approaching departure. About seven weeks ago he began to complain about pains in his breast, which increased so that he was obliged to take to his bed, and because he grew worse from day to day soon believed that our Saviour would call him home by reason of this sickness. On the 21st he called his children; gave them his farewell blessing, exhorting them to be faithful to our Saviour, and recommended to them their dear mother. On the 29th of January in the morning at 7 o’clock, being his birthday our Saviour took this faithful Brother home to himself, exactly 64 years old. Beside the surviving widow and 10 children, he also leaves 31 grandchildren and one great grandchild. (Copied from Family Records, Book B, Pages 35a-25b)

Transcribed by Charlotte Curlee Ramsey from documents submitted by Jack and Doris Brown Rose.


Will of Christopher Elrod, Sr (1721 – 1785)

Christopher and Aaltje moved to Monocacy, then down to NC about 1744or so. It was there, according to Aaltje’s autobiography, they became Moravians and helped found the English speaking Hope (N.C.) Congregation.

WILL OF CHRISTOPHER ELROD SR. – ROWAN CO, NCIn the Name of God, Amen. I, Christopher Elrod Sr in the state of North Carolina, being in perfect mind and memory, thanks be to God forit, and calling to mind the mortality of my body and that it isappointed for all men to die, do make and ordain this my last will andtestament, and as touching such worldly goods as it hath pleased Godto help me with, I give, divise, and dispose of it in manner and formas follows:Item: I will and bequeath unto my beloved son, Adam, five shillings to be paid to him from out of my estate.Item: I give and bequeath unto my beloved daughter, Sarah the sum of five shillings to be paid by my executors out of my estate.Item: I will and bequeath unto my daughter, Catherine, the sum of five shillings to be paid as aforesaid.Item: I will and bequeath to my beloved daughter, Margaret, one creature to be valued at five pounds in gold or silver money.Item: I give and bequeath unto my beloved daughter, Mary, one horse creature to be valued at five pounds in gold or silver and also two cows and one feather bed and bedding to it which she has in her custody, and then also one ewe and one grown sow with pigs, the above willed articles and money to each above person to be paid their legacies within twelve months of my demise.Item: I will and bequeath unto my beloved son, Christopher, 50 acres of land as it is measured off to him in the upper end of my tract which is to be in his possession at my demise.Item: I will and bequeath unto my beloved sons, Robert and John Elrod,the whole of what is left of my tract of land whereon I now live, with all its improvements and buildings to their possession after my decease and my wife’s.Item: I will and bequeath unto my beloved daughters Aaltje and Lydia two cows to each of them and one ewe and one sow with pigs to each and also five pounds in gold or silver, or the value thereof in other money that shall be lawful at the time of the payment and each of them one good feather bed and furniture which is to be paid to them by my executors out of my estate if there is as much left at that time and if not to be paid out of the land willed to my three youngest sons.Item: I will and bequeath unto my beloved wife, Aaltje, one-third part of my land during her life time and also all my stock and all sorts and all my household goods and plantation tools and money during her lifetime and at my demise to be at her own disposal except the land which is to be as before mentioned.I institute and appoint my beloved wife and my son Adam whole and sole executers and executrix of this my last will and testament and I do hereby disavow and make void all other wills and bequeaths made ordone by me heretofore.

In witness where of I have set my hand and seal this 17 day of March,1799.Signed, sealed. published and pronounced in the presence of Witnesses:

Adam Spone, Fred Fudler, Even EllisSigned: Christopher Elrod

Adam Spone proved the will 3 May 1785, as Christopher had died 29 Jan 1785


Interned in the original Hope Moravian Church, Clemmons, Forsyth County, North Carolina, USA graveyard which is no longer in use. The current Hope Moravian Graveyard is adjacent to the church at 2759 Hope Church Rd.

Hope Moravian Cemetery, the old cemetery, is located in a different place than the current Hope Moravian Church and cemetery which is located on Hope Church Road. NOTE: There are no new burials there. This is the site of the earliest Hope Moravian Church, which no longer exists. The cemetery has wooden fence posts around it, and there used to be a stapled picture of the old church on a tree, but it might be gone by now. The graves are Moravian, so they’re all the same, simple stones. This makes the cemetery hard to find as it’s hard to see from the road. It’s located 500 feet north of the end of Copeland Road, just north of the intersection with US 158.


Diaries of the Brethren tell that the Douthit and Elrod families sought protection in the fort at Bethabara during the Indian Wars. Evidently the Johnson fort was not yet in existence, because it would have been closer. (1756)



Memoirs (wife of Christopher Elrod Sr.)

The late widowed Sister Aaltje Elrod (Soelle) who died on September 17, 1804, at Hope had the following taken down about her life: “I was born October 20, 1724, in Germantown in Pennsylvania and since my parents belonged to the Mennonites, I was not baptized as a child. My father moved later to the Canawaga where I faithfully attended the meetings. After I was grown I was baptized by the Lutheran pastor by the name of Can- zler and this made a deep impression on me. Soon after this my father moved to Maryland to the region of Manaskosy where I married my late husband Christopher Elrod on March 26, 1743. In 1751 we moved to North Carolina and settled on the Yadkin River. Some years later some of the Brethern came into the region and some of them visited in the country and preached in the houses and thus we soon had the opportunity of hearing them preach. The first in whose preaching I was awakened was the late Bro. Post. From this time on I sought to obtain my salvation and found much comfort in the preaching of the Brethren Soelle, Ettwein and Utley. “In the dangerous time of the Indian War we fled to Bethabara where we to our blessing had occasion to become better acquainted with the Brethren. When it again became safer in the country we moved back to our plantation but continued to attend the Sunday meetings in Bethabara until a little congregat- ion was organized on the Southfork in Friedberg, when we then attended the meetings of the brethren there, which were very greatly blessed to my heart, although they were held in the German language which I did not know very well. I will, however, never forget how I was encouraged and revived anew when from time to time the late Sister Marschall visited in Friedberg and I could talk with her in the English language very open-heartedly about the state of my heart and her conversation and advice was true balm for my poor heart. “On April 4, 1773, in Friedberg, I had the grace of being received in the congregation and on January 22, 1774, I became a communicant in the body and blood of the Lord in the service of the Holy Communion. Some of our children were also baptized and when the congregation was organized in the year 1780, we had the joy of being among the first members of this little congregation.” So far it was in her own information.

From this time she found her greatest comfort and encouragement in the close association with the Saviour and in the observance of his suffering and death. In the olden times when the brethren frequently visited in the country and preached, they were always welcome in her house and could be refreshed there from their heavy labors. The death of her dear husband in January, 1784 grieved her very much, and it was hard for her to adjust to her new condition, and only the hope of follow- ing him soon into eternity often supported her for she had an unusual longing to depart and be with Christ, her Redeemer, and finally became very impatient that she had to wait so much longer than she had expected. When one spoke to her she usually expressed emphatically this longing to be with Christ and if she was recommended to have patience, she said, “I belong to the Savior”. He knows his time best and when it pleases him I will go to him, but soon, soon.!” Manifestly she put her hope in God in her almost twenty years of Widow- hood and this hope was not destroyed when she lived by turns with her four sons who all belonged to the congregation and who cared for and tended her with the love of a child. Her quiet way of life, withdrawn from this world and her attachment to and persistent association with the Saviour which shone forth from all her activities, made her generally beloved. Since for several years, because of her age and weakness, she was unable to come to the meetings of the congregation, so much the more she was comforted and refreshed by the association with the Saviour at home and when her children sometimes brought her to communion or otherwise at times to church festivals, it was for her always a day of blessing. God had blessed her marriage with 12 children, of whom 9 are still living. From these she had 63 grandchildren and 73 great-grandchildren of whom 57 grandchildren and 68 great-grandchildren are still living. Two weeks ago, in the house of her son, John Elrod, where she is now living, she became sick with the prevailing fever and it was appointed for her to go home to her Saviour as she had so many years longed to do. While conscious and even in delirium she called on the Saviour often and prayed English and German verses. When her children asked her whether she was now ready to go to the Saviour she gave witness of that with joy that she was really separated from the world and had a complete desire to be at home with her Saviour and this was evident in a lovely manner in her last illness. On Sunday, the 16th of this month, in the presence of several of her children and children’s children and blessing of the Lord and the congregation was administered to her for her homegoing and she departed in the afternoon of September 17, 1804. Her age was 79 years, one month, and 3 days.

From Document found in Moravian Archives, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.


Interned in the original Hope Moravian Church, Clemmons, Forsyth County, North Carolina, USA graveyard which is no longer in use. The current Hope Moravian Graveyard is adjacent to the church at 2759 Hope Church Rd.

Hope Moravian Cemetery, the old cemetery, is located in a different place than the current Hope Moravian Church and cemetery which is located on Hope Church Road. NOTE: There are no new burials there. This is the site of the earliest Hope Moravian Church, which no longer exists. The cemetery has wooden fence posts around it, and there used to be a stapled picture of the old church on a tree, but it might be gone by now. The graves are Moravian, so they’re all the same, simple stones. This makes the cemetery hard to find as it’s hard to see from the road. It’s located 500 feet north of the end of Copeland Road, just north of the intersection with US 158.

Early Settlers on the Yadkin River – The Muddy Creek Settlement

Old Hope Church Moravian in Hope NC

Here is a great article on early American Elrod history from Dianne Underwood who is an Elrod ancestor from North Carolina. I want to thank her for allowing me to share with everyone!

Introduction – Early Settlers on the Yadkin River- The Muddy Creek Settlement

In 1753 a group of Moravian settlers came to North Carolina and began a permanent settlement called Bethabara in what is now Forsyth County. The Moravians kept detailed records including diaries, maps, and personal memoirs. These records are the source for much of the following information.

In her personal memoir, Altje Sell Elrod states that she and her husband Christopher settled along the banks of the Yadkin River in 1751. They were part of a large extended family living in what the Moravian surveyor Christian Reuters would later call the Muddy Creek Settlement. Altje Sell was raised as a Mennonite and Christopher Elrod was Lutheran but the couple joined the Moravian faith. In 1771 their daughter, Margaret Elrod, married Josephus Wilhelm Bohner. Will Bohner was a Moravian who came to Bethabara in 1769 to serve as a tanner.

The Muddy Creek Settlement on the east bank of the Yadkin would eventually become known as Clemmons. Peter Clemmons arrived around 1800 and deserves credit for turning a collection of farms into a community. The book Images of America- Clemmons by Kevin White written in association with the Clemmons Historical Society documents the history of Clemmons beginning in 1800. However there were hunters, trappers and a few settlers in the area as early as the 1740’s. Things changed between 1743 and 1746 when the Granville District was formed. The Granville District was a large area that extended sixty miles south of the border with Virginia and spanned the entire northern half of the state. The land was owned by John Carteret, Lord Granville, and he wanted to attract permanent settlers.

One of the first known permanent settlements in the Piedmont region was the Morgan Bryan (Bryant) settlement. The Bryan settlement is generally recognized as land located in what are today western Forsyth County, eastern Yadkin County, and most of Davie County. Robert Ramsey’s book Carolina Cradle explains the significance of the settlements in the forks of the Yadkin River and traces the roots of the early pioneers. The Bryans came to what was then Anson County in North Carolina about 1748 and purchased several large tracts of land. Morgan Bryan’s daughter Eleanor married William Linville.

According to land records William Linville purchased land on the east bank of the Yadkin River from Lord Granville on 28 April 1753 and sold it to Adam Sell (Sill) on 16 June 1753. Adam Sell moved to North Carolina from Pennsylvania near the Maryland border with two of his daughters and their families. One of his daughters was Altje Sell Elrod. Fortunately for the Elrods and Sells, they settled next to the 100,000 acre parcel of land that would become known as the Wachovia Tract. Lord Granville typically sold one mile square parcels of land but agreed to sell a large parcel to the Moravians in 1753 because of their intent to create permanent settlements.

By the mid 1750’s, the arrival of large numbers of permanent setters forced the Native Americans to declare war. The Elrods and other families along the Yadkin River sought refuge at Fort Bethabara during the Indian Wars. After this initial encounter at Bethabara, the Sells and Elrods began to attend Moravian services at Friedberg and welcomed Moravian ministers into their homes. Christopher and Altje Sell Elrod were English speaking and Moravian ministers George Soelle and Richard Utley rode circuits and delivered sermons in English to the families. The Moravian records described the settlers as “an honor roll of those who sought to live godly lives in the midst of a careless and oftentimes godless land, not infrequently scoffed and jeered by their neighbors.” Many of these settlers are buried at the Old Hope Moravian Cemetery in Clemmons. Hope was the first English speaking Moravian congregation.
The early pioneer families that settled south of the Shallow Ford on the east bank of the Yadkin River next to the Wachovia tract were Sell (Soelle), Elrod, Douthit, Johnson, Riddle, Hauser, McKnight, Ellis, and Bohner(Boner), to name a few. These families came to America from Europe in the late 1600’s and early 1700’s seeking economic and religious opportunities.

Lutheran Roots

To better understand the desire for economic and religious freedom, the following information describes the times in which our ancestors lived. Michael Elrod owns the Elrod Family Website and his thorough and exhaustive research is the primary source. In the 1500’s, Germany was not a united country but a collection of independent states known as the Holy Roman Empire. The French writer Voltaire commented that it was not holy, Roman, or an empire. The Elrod (Ellroths, Elrode, Ellrod) family is from an area in the Holy Roman Empire known as the Palatine. Many books have been written about the Palatine Emigrations.
Palatine was a regional area in the southwest of Germany on the border with France. Because of its location, the region assumed a strategic importance in history. The area was greatly affected by the religious wars that raged for decades. Cities were destroyed, taxes were high, and there were episodes of famine and disease. Soldiers on both sides of the conflict were undisciplined and often lawless, imposing severe punishments on citizens in the territory.

The Elrod family history can be traced to the early 1600’s in Europe. This period in European history was one of great growth and change. The Elizabethan Era in England had ended. What was called the Thirty Years War in Europe was over but religious conflicts continued and took a heavy toll on families for many years to come. Several generations suffered greatly during this time. Economic issues, religious strife, and constant warfare were the main factors in what became known as the Great Palatine migration to America.

Elrods in Germany

The Elrods were an educated and accomplished family. Jacob Elrod I was born in Kulmbach, Germany, in the latter part of the 1500’s. Our family is descended from of one of Jacob Elrod I’s sons, Johannes Christophorus. Little is known about our early ancestor but the family history of his older brother is well known.
Jacob Elrod II (1601-1671) studied theology, astronomy, and mathematics at the University of Altdorf. In 1657 he published the Mittle Calendar in which he worked out the differences between the Catholic Gregorian calendar and the Protestant Julian calendar. In 1659 he presented his calendar to the Diet of Regensburg and received a gold chain from Emperor Leopold for his work. An elementary school in Kulmbach, Germany is named for Jacob Elrod II.

In the 1700’s, Jacob II’s great grandsons were elevated from the middle class, or bourgeoisie, to nobility. Their grandfather was Jacob II’s son Phillip Andreas (1643-1706). Their father was Phillip Andreas’ son, Johan Michael. Johann Michael Elrod was known as a master tailor and two of his three sons became part of the German nobility. Wolfgang Friedrich (1704-1766), was elevated to peerage. Another son, Phillip Andreas, (1707-1767) became the first Count Elrod. A third son, German August (1709-1760) a theology professor, declined the honor. The Plassenberg Castle in Kulmbach was home to the Elrod nobility.

Our ancestor, Johannes Christophorus Elrod, was born in 1608 a year after John Smith founded the settlement of Jamestown in America. He was the brother of Jacob II. The grandson of Johannes Christophorus, Johan Teter Elrod (1684-1744), is our Elrod ancestor who came to America. Johan Teter’s father was born about 1654 but his name is unknown.

So about the time that the descendants of Jacob II were elevated to nobility, the descendants of his brother, Johannes Christophorus, left Germany for America. All three families, Elrod, Sell, and Bohner, chose to leave Germany in what has become known as the great Palatine Emigration.

Lutheran Immigrants- Elrods

In the early 1700’s war between the Protestants and Catholics had raged for decades in Europe. Choices for survival were limited. Some citizens were willing to switch their religion depending on which side was in power. There were even groups who outwardly supported the church in power but held secretly to their own beliefs. The Moravian Brethren were known as the “hidden seed.” Many others decided to leave and resettle elsewhere. Lists of refugees to America total over fifteen thousand, about half of whom were Palatines.

The lure of good land and religious tolerance was strong. William Penn had founded a new colony based on religious freedom. Reports about the colony created a strong desire in many to undertake a perilous journey in hopes of a new beginning. Our Elrod ancestors were Lutherans and may have held strong religious beliefs but the desire for land was most likely their primary motivation.

Refugees from Germany sailed to Holland, then to London, and from there to America. The mother of William Penn, Margaret Jasper, had German cousins and was sympathetic to the Palatines. At one point the sheer number of refugees caused the Dutch government to close the port of Rotterdam. London was overrun by starving Palatines. Queen Anne of England was sympathetic to their plight and ordered collections to be taken to provide food and shelter. The exiles were a mixture of refugees from the Palatine. Their numbers included Reformers, Lutherans, Catholics, and a few Baptists and Mennonites. The English crown made the Lutherans their official agents.

Johan Teter (1684-1744) and Maria Magdalena Elrod (1685-1721) were Lutherans in the fifth party of Palatines who sailed from Holland between 3 and 10 July of 1709. They travelled with their infant son Wilhelm. Johan Wilhelm and Susanna Catarina Lerchenzeiler, were listed on the ship’s roster with one child. Johan Wilhelm Lerchenzeiler may have been Maria’s father or possibly her brother. The party arrived in England and most likely took shelter in a barn or army tent that the English provided. London was a small city with its own poverty and hunger issues. Although the English found ways to temporarily provide for the religious refugees, relocating them was a priority. The Palatines were sent to three locations- Ireland, New York, or the Carolinas. The refugees resettled to America were to produce naval stores, turpentine, tar, and pitch for the royal Navy.

The voyage to America claimed many lives. The exiles were lived in crowded quarters. Food and water were scarce and disease was rampant. The exodus continued for many years and conditions onboard got worse with each voyage. Rations of food often ran out and lice were so thick that they had to be scraped off. When the ships arrived in America, a doctor would come aboard and decide who would was healthy enough to stay and who had to return to England. If you had a furry tongue, you were not allowed to get off the ship.

The Elrods arrived in America no later than August of 1709 in the port of New York. During this time in history, the first town in North Carolina was incorporated (1706) and called Bath. From 1711-1714, the Carolina colonists were fighting the Tuscarora Indians and by 1717 Stede Bonnet, better known as Blackbeard, was raiding ships off the North Carolina Coast. Church records show the Elrods in the area of New Castle County along the Pennsylvania/Maryland border until 1721.

In 1721 a son was born to the Elrods and named Christopher. That child was the first American born Elrod ancestor. His mother, Maria Magdalena Lerchenzeiler Elrod, had eight children and died the year that Christopher was born, possibly in childbirth. She is buried at Old Swede’s Church (Holy Trinity Church) at 7th and Church Streets in Wilmington, Delaware. Johan Teter remarried the same year. His second wife was Sarah Wood and the couple had seven children. From the fifteen children of Johan Teter, the Elrod pioneers scattered far and wide.

Elrods in North Carolina

Moravian memoirs are valuable tools for research but, more importantly, they are the stories of our ancestors. Christopher Elrod’s memoir says he was born in 1721 in Pennsylvania on the Maryland border and reared in the Lutheran religion. He married Altje Sell in 1743 and in 1751 the couple moved to the Carolina wilderness. Christopher and Altje did not come alone. Several sons and daughters of Johan Teter Elrod travelled to North Carolina. Altje’s father (Adam Sell) and her sister (Catherine Sell Boyer) also made the journey. The large extended family most likely did not all travel to the area at the same time. One group would arrive and, when they were established, send for others.
The following is a brief introduction to seven known Elrods who made the journey to North Carolina. Wilhelm Jeremiah, Robert, and Christopher were the children of Maria Magdalena Lerchenzeiler. Margaret, Hannah, and John were the children of Sarah Wood.

Christopher Elrod’s half-sister named Margaret married George Hauser Senior. Margaret Elrod Hauser’s Moravian memoir describes a hard life. After her mother (Sarah Wood Elrod) died, she was bound out to service. Her conditions during the seventeen year period were so harsh that her brothers worked to secure her release.

George Hauser Senior was a blacksmith by trade and the couple came to the Yadkin in 1753 and eventually settled in a little house in Bethania. The family experienced hardship when one son married outside of the Moravian faith. Moravians needed permission to marry even within the faith. Margaret’s memoir recalls how she tried to make amends with her husband and others when she felt her death at age 38 was close. The Moravian community of Bethania is sometimes called Hauser Town.

Another half-sister to family patriarch Christopher was Hannah Susannah Elrod. She married John Parke and the couple journeyed to North Carolina eventually moving to West Virginia. The Rowan Family Heritage book has an entry on this family and their son Noah Elrod.

Christopher’s oldest brother Wilhelm, who was born in Germany and survived the voyage to America, married Ana Bischoff. One branch of this family, descendants of Wilhelm and Ana’s son, Conrad, eventually settled in Blowing Rock and live there today. Another son of Wilhelm and Ana was an officer in the British army during the American Revolution and killed as a traitor. William Elrod Junior’s death is noted in the Moravian Records. The Revolutionary War divided family loyalties and the Bryan Clan had a reputation as notorious Tories. Wilhelm and Ana had two other sons, Samuel who died young and Peter who moved to South Carolina.

Christopher’s brother Jeremiah Elrod married the sister of John Douthit. When Jeremiah Elrod died, George McKnight Senior became guardian for his two sons. McKnight’s wife died later and he married Jeremiah’s widow who became Sarah Douthit Elrod McKnight. The Douthits and McKnights were early settlers in Clemmons. The Methodist Bishop Asbury met at McKnight’s Meeting House and the McKnights helped form Mt. Pleasant Methodist Church in Tanglewood Park. Jeremiah Elrod’s son Adam moved to South Carolina with his first cousin Peter (Wilhelm’s son). Another son, Jeremiah Junior created a scandal in the pious Moravian community in Forsyth County when he abandoned his wife Ana Vogler and ran off with another woman.
Land records show the presence of Christopher’s brother, Robert Elrod, in North Carolina by 1753. Robert married Sarah Scott the sister of John Douthit Senior’s wife Mary. The family moved to Kentucky as did many settlers and, when Robert Elrod died, Samuel Boone probated his will. Squire Boone lived across the Yadkin in Bryan’s settlement. The Boones had settled on Dutchman’s (Deutschman’’s) Creek near Mocksville in 1752. The Elrods probably followed the trail blazed by Daniel Boone across the Cumberland Gap to Kentucky. A half-brother to Christopher, John Teter Elrod Junior also moved to Kentucky. His wife was Mary Muse. The area that became Forsyth County has many descendants of the Elrod family.

Mennonite Roots- Sell, Soelle, Sellen

The Elrods came to America in 1709 but our Mennonite ancestors had been here for almost twenty years. Samuel Pennypacker wrote a book in 1899 titled The Settlement of Germantown Pennsylvania and the Beginning of German Immigrations to North America. His work is the source for much of the information that follows. Pennypacker is descended from many of the original families in Germantown, including the Seilen (Sell) family.

Mennonites were a religious sect that endured persecution in Europe for many years. One issue that set them apart from other sects was infant baptism. Altje Sell Elrod notes in her Moravian memoir that she was Mennonite and therefore not baptized as a child. Their leader was a man named Menno Simons. He was born in 1492 in Holland and educated as a priest. In 1536 Menno Simons severed ties with the Catholic Church. His reformist teachings went further than Luther or Calvin in that he believed in separation of the church and state.

For many years it was assumed that Germantown was settled by Mennonites from Krefeld, Germany. However, William Isaac Hull, a professor at Swarthmore College and Quaker scholar proved that a mix of Quaker families and Mennonite families from Krefeld settled in Germantown. Many of these Mennonite and Quaker families eventually settled along the Yakin River in North Carolina.

Krefeld (Crefeld), Germany was a city on the lower Rhine a few miles from the German border with Holland. It is from this war torn area along the Rhine that the early settlers came. The Global AnaBaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online (GAMEO) states that the Seilen family came to Germantown from Krefeld in 1690. Passenger lists record Hendrick (Heinrich) Sell and his brother Dirck. Martin Sell may have been another brother. Peter Dirck Sell married Adrianna Van Sintern late in life and had three children. Their daughter Neeltje Seilen married Johan Pennypacker. Heinrich Sell may have had thirteen children and two or three wives. By 1713, the family of Heinrich Sell moved from Germantown to Skippack about twelve miles north and back to York County by 1732.

Dr. Kenneth Sells has researched the Sell (Sellen, Seilen, Soelle) family extensively. His research does not provide supporting evidence for a father/son relationship between Adam Sell (born in 1700) and Heinrich Seilen but Dr. Sell’s research does not rule out a relationship either.

However, several documents support the fact that Adam Sell’s daughter Altje was born in 1724 in Germantown and married Christopher Elrod in 1743. Altje’s Moravian memoir gives an account of her early life in her own words. Her last name is spelled Soelle in the Moravian records. There is a Moravian minister named George Soelle who came to North Carolina from Maine. George Soelle was a Lutheran minister before becoming a Moravian. No relationship between the families has been established so the last name for Altje will be Sell in this work to avoid any confusion.

In her Moravian memoir, Altje states that she was born in Germantown in Pennsylvania. Her parents were Mennonites and later moved to Conewago Creek where she faithfully attended Menonnite meetings. When she was grown, Altje was baptized by a Lutheran minister and, in her own words, the act made a great impression. The minister was David Candler and Lutheran records show that he baptized eighty people in 1740. Altje’s family moved to Monocacy, Maryland, where she met and married Christopher Elrod.

With respect to the mother of Altje Sell, many online family trees identify her as “Sarah” the daughter of Thomas Fitzwater. Thomas Fitzwater came to America from England aboard the ship Welcome in 1682 as a young child. His will states that he had a daughter named Sarah. However, there is no supporting evidence that the mother of Altje was Sarah Burdon Fitzwater. So we are left with these facts. Altje’s parents were Mennonites. Her father was Adam Sell and her mother was likely named Sarah. Altje Sell also had a younger sister named Catherine who married Henry Boyer and came to North Carolina.
Letters from many of the original Germantown settlers give a valuable insight into life in Germantown. Daniel Pastorius relates the discomforts and poverty along with the riches of the new land. Pastorius was raised a Lutheran but was approached by leaders of the Mennonites, Pietists, and Quakers about traveling to America and purchasing land for a settlement. Daniel Pastorius is known as the founder of Germantown which is now part of Philadelphia.

In his letters, Pastorius writes that the journey over took about ten weeks. Seas were rough and many were sea sick. High winds broke a foremast and one ship was repeatedly bumped by a whale. Food and water were poor in quality and rationed. Pastorius warned others to bring food of their own.

On arrival many settlers took shelter in caves until crude cabins could be built. Pastorius wrote that anyone wishing to spare his hands should stay put. He went on to say that there had been more trouble from Christians than so called savages. One Lutheran minister was nothing but a drunkard according to Pastorius. It should be noted that Lutheran historians did not agree with Pastorius’ assessment of the Lutheran settlers and their leaders.

Pastorius described one meal with the Native Americans where they sat on the ground to eat using shells for spoons and leaves for plates. Their pumpkin was cooked in pure water, needing no butter or seasoning.

Land was described as heavily wooded. Settlers let their livestock roam freely. Pastorius asked that the next group of settlers include some men to clear the land and carpenters to build homes and barns.

Sells in North Carolina

Adam Sell, the family patriarch, came to North Carolina about 1751 with his two daughters and sons in law. About ten years later he returned to Maryland where he died in 1767 in Monocacy, Maryland.

In 1753 Lord Granville transferred 587 acres of land to William Linville who transferred the land to Adam Sell. The Linvilles were Quakers and had previously relocated to Virginia from Pennsylvania. As far as the English were concerned, Quakers, Mennonites, and Moravians fell into the general category of Deutsch. The English did not differentiate based on country of origin either. The Swiss, Palatines, and Alsatians were simply Deutsch or Palatines. These groups were often ridiculed for their beliefs and language and chose to relocate.

Moravian records show that Adam Sell associated himself with the Moravians at Bethania but there are no specific details of his life and no memoir.

Moravian Roots- Bohners

The Elrods and Sells had lived on the Yadkin for about 18 years when a young man arrived in Bethabara as a tanner in 1769. Josephus Wilhelm Bohner had been raised by the Moravians in York Pennsylvania.

Inspiration for the Moravian Church and protestant Reformation began in the 1400’s with the eloquent and impassioned teachings of Jan Hus. Hus was a monk in the Catholic Church and protested fearlessly against the abuses of the church. He was burned at the stake in 1415 for his beliefs. His early followers formed the Hussite League and later, in 1497, organized as Unitas Fratum or Unity of the Brethren.
Protestants date their separation from the Catholic Church to 1517 when Martin Luther used the recently invented printing press to translate the Bible into German. However, all good Moravians know that Martin Luther was influenced by Jan Hus. The Moravian Church is arguably the first Protestant Church formed sixty years before Luther’s Reformation. By the time of the reformation, the Moravian Church had over two hundred thousand members and four hundred parishes.

Religious freedom was declared in 1609 in Bohemia and Moravia only to be crushed in 1627. Protestant churches were seized and clergy banned. Many believers chose to leave but a group that became known as the hidden seed remained. The hidden seed was a group of men who were outwardly Catholic but secretly held to the beliefs of the Brethren. In 1722 descendants of the Brethren began building Hernnhut as a rallying place for other believers.

Nicholas Lewis, Count Zinzendorf, became the leader of church and sought to avoid conflict with the State Church by fostering the growth of the Brethren in settlements elsewhere. Missions were established in the West Indies, Greenland, and Georgia.
After five years in Georgia the missionaries moved to Pennsylvania and created settlements at Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz. By 1752, they sent a party to North Carolina to establish a settlement named Bethabara.

The parents of Josephus Wilhelm Bohner are unknown and DNA tests have not solved the mystery. Will’s parents were likely Palatine refugees and there are some sources that say he born in Lower Alsace in the Palatinate. The most reliable source is the Moravian memoir which states that Will was born in Pennsylvania in 1747.

Bohner’s memoir also states that he was the apprentice of Francis Jacob Miller in York and that he arrived in Bethabara in 1769. Records show that Josephus Wilhelm Bohner left Bethabara no later than 1771 and married Margaret Elrod the daughter of Christopher and Altje Sell Elrod.

So what became the Boner family in Clemmons began with Lutherans named Elrod, Mennonites named Sell, and a Moravian sent to Bethabara as a tanner. My early ancestors began their journey by leaving Europe to take refuge in America. From Pennsylvania, another generation moved to the North Carolina wilderness. These pioneers created a settlement, fought Indians, survived epidemics of scarlet fever and typhus, and endured the Regulator conflict and American Revolution. They lived in Clemmons before it was Clemmons.

To better understand the family stories that will follow, it is helpful to have some background knowledge concerning North Carolina counties and land records, the Great Wagon Road, the Shallow Ford, and life in general for the pioneers.

Land Records and NC Counties

With respect to land ownership, North Carolina land records for this period of time are complicated. Rowan County was formed in 1753 from Anson County and earlier Anson land records were destroyed in a fire. In addition, a family in what is now Forsyth County could live in one place but, depending on the year and location, the farm could be in Anson, Rowan, Surry, Stokes, Davidson, or Forsyth Counties. Revolutionary War records show the settlers in the area as citizens of Surry County. By the War of 1812, many are in Stokes County and during the Civil War the area was either Davidson or Forsyth County. Forsyth County was formed in 1849 but not complete. The Shallow Ford area was later annexed from Yadkin County and Clemmonsville from Davidson County.

Colonial land records do exist, however, young couples were often allowed to live on a parcel of family land and no land transaction was recorded until the family patriarch died. A family may have lived on land for years before registering a deed through the courts.

The Great Wagon Road

In 1751, the pioneers traveled along the Great Wagon road from Pennsylvania to North Carolina. In many places the road was little more than an Indian path or buffalo trail. Kyle Stimson’s research and John Henry Clewell’s History of Wachovia in North Carolina from 1752-1902 are excellent resources. Our family’s experiences would have been similar to the description that follows from Clewell’s book.

Travelers may have had wagons and horses or walked most of the way. Their journey from Pennsylvania would have been about five hundred miles and lasted about six weeks. The travelers were at the mercy of the weather and the kindness of strangers. The search for food was never ending. Many rivers had to be crossed and mountains safely ascended and descended. Sometimes curious Indians might follow the group. Panthers, venomous snakes, and poisonous spiders were a part of the journey and travelers had to be vigilant.

Altje Sell Elrod may have been pregnant with her fifth child (Margaret) as she made the journey with her three young children and husband. She had already suffered the loss of a little girl. Christopher Elrod was thirty years old and Altje was twenty seven when they came to North Carolina.

The Shallow Ford

The Shallow Ford and Great Wagon Road have been forgotten by many today but were extremely important to settlers in the 1750’s. Most of what follows is from Kyle Stimson’s book The Great Philadelphia Wagon Road in Forsyth County, N.C. 1750-1770. There are many possible paths for the road but Stimson concludes that it passed through the Shallow Ford area in the heart of the Bryan Settlement. In 1748 Bryan and Linville were the first to take wagons from the Shanidore (Shenadoah) to the Etkin (Yadkin) according to Moravian records. Their journey took three months and at one point Bryan took the wheels off his wagon and carried it piecemeal to the top of a mountain. A historic marker for the great Wagon Road is located at Bethabara.

The Shallow Ford, as its name implies, was typically an area where the water was about 18 inches deep over a built up rock bed. Ferries eventually dotted the Yadkin but this was the only area that could be forded by wagons and horses. Kyle Stimson lists the names of John Douthit, Robert Elrod, and Christopher Elrod as settlers arriving in the area in the early 1750’s. He credits them with being the earliest settler families of what is now Clemmons. Lord Cornwallis and his army crossed the Shallow Ford during the Revolutionary War as did General Stoneman during the Civil War.

Life in General for the The The Pioneer Woman

The following description of pioneer life is from the book Forsyth: A County on the March by Adelaide Fries and others. The Piedmont was heavily forested so trees needed to be cleared before crops could be grown. Settlers fed themselves by using their muskets or crude farming tools. Corn was a staple and some wheat and rye were grown in the fertile soil. There were fruit trees in the area and game was plentiful. Corn pone and sallet (greens) were basic fare. The gristmill at Bethabara made bread possible and the community was well known for its bread.
Farmers built barns and fenced pastures to protect their livestock often before building a cabin for the family. Barns and pastures provided livestock protection from predators such as bears and panthers. Houses were little more than protection against the elements at the beginning. The pioneers would sleep in their wagons until a cabin was built.

Clothes were either homespun or buckskin so tanners were in high demand as clothing for men (and sometimes women) included buckskin shirts, breeches, and leggings. Moccasins were often the only shoes available. Our ancestor Will Bohner came to Bethabara to serve as a tanner.

Flax was one the earliest fibers grown and Margaret Elrod’s sister Mary was a weaver in Salem. Will’s sons would be apprenticed in Salem as tailors and hatters. The Moravians wore plain clothes and a traveler would know who you were by the way dressed.

Settlements along the Yadkin had their share of taverns and alcohol. Illegitimate children as well as orphans were problems for the courts. Court records are a wealth of information for that time. Many frontier families moved frequently because they had trouble getting along with others but some folks just liked to stay on the move. After moving from the Maryland/ Pennsylvania border, Christopher and Altje Sell Elrod lived in North Carolina for the rest of their lives.

Piedmont Pioneers- Christopher and Altje Sell Elrod

The Elrods settled on the east side of the Yadkin River in an area called Blanket Bottom about 1751. One reason for choosing land along the river was that the floodplain was fertile soil. The area away from the river was heavily forested and trees had to be cleared to make room for a cabin, barn, or garden. Chances are the original home was a log cabin on high ground away from the river. The thick logs made the home warm in winter and cool in summer. Plank homes came later as the family prospered.
Fortunately for the Elrods, Moravians began their settlement at Bethabara in 1753. John Henry Clewell describes the Moravians as devout Christians well prepared to begin their settlement. Diversity of industries was central to their plan for a successful community. By 1754, Bethabara had a carpenter shop, shoe shop, tailor establishment, pottery, blacksmith shop, cooper shop, and tannery. The Elrod family soon benefited from the kindness of the Moravians. About 1759, the Elrods traveled to Fort Bethabara for safety during Indian raids as did frightened settlers for many miles. They would have been kept in a part of the fort separated from the Moravians as “strangers” but the Moravians generously provided for them. The French and Indian War stretched over a ten year period from 1754-1764. Fort Dobbs near Statesville was built in 1756.

Christopher Elrod states in his memoir that he thought of himself as a hardworking man and tried to support his family honorably and righteously. He is also described as having a temper but willing to settle differences and live in peace. Christopher states that he heard Brother Joseph (Bishop Gottlieb Spangenberg) preach at Bethabara and from that point on wanted to enjoy the blessing of the Brudergemeine. In 1773 Christopher and Altje were received into the Friedberg Church and, in 1780, a church for an English speaking congregation near Clemmons called Hope was consecrated. The building of the church was delayed by the American Revolution.
Hope Moravian Church

Hope was the first English speaking Moravian community. The Friedberg Pastor George Soelle gave his sermons in German and English. Altje’s memoir states that the opportunity to talk about the state of her poor soul in English was “balm for her heart.” Many of the later settlers in the Hope area came from Monocacy in Maryland and were also English speaking. This is significant because many Germans refused to learn the English language. Even enlightened leaders like Benjamin Franklin considered this a suspicious act and it is one of many reasons that German settlers endured bigotry.

Hope was some distance from the center of Moravian control in Salem and the Moravians were reluctant to allow the community to form fearing it would not adhere to their strict standards. After tearful requests by the Elrods for a church, John Douthit and his good friend and neighbor, Christopher Elrod, were allowed to build Hope Church. The building was also used as a church school.

Christopher and Altje had a large family and all of the surviving children married with the exception of Mary Elrod (1755-1819). Mary served in the community at Salem in several capacities. In 1786 she is listed on the Single Sister’s roll. She was once mistress of weaving and records note that she replaced Sister Peddycourt as Fremden Dienerin.

The population of the entire Hope community near Muddy Creek in what is now Clemmons was very small, only a few families, so everyone who was not related, soon was. A family tree for the children of Christopher and Altje is attached.

Christopher died at age 64. According to his memoir, his last words were “Dear Savior, have mercy on me!” Altje never recovered from the loss. Her memoir states that she lived for another twenty years but had an unusual longing to depart and be with Christ and often expressed great impatience that it was taking so long. She died at age 85 at the home of her son John Elrod. John moved to Kentucky after his mother’s death. Christopher had two brothers named John (Mary Muse) and Robert (Sarah Scott) and he named two of his sons after them. Christopher’s sons John and Robert married sisters who were Riddles.

Altje Sell and Christopher Elrod were born in America on the border between Pennsylvania and Maryland. They traveled to North Carolina along the Great Wagon Road and settled south of the Shallow Ford. After seeking refuge from the Moravians at Bethabara the Elrods sought to have their own English speaking Moravian church. The couple survived the Regulator Movement and the American Revolution. According to their memoirs, Altje and Christopher Elrod had 12 children, 63 grandchildren, and 73 great grandchildren.

Three key events shaped the lives of these North Carolina pioneers- the French and Indian War, the Regulator Conflict, and the American Revolution.

Erhard Weigel and Jakob Ellrod’s Middle Kalendar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia located at

Erhard Weigel

Erhard Weigel (December 16, 1625 – March 21, 1699) was a German mathematician, astronomer and philosopher.

He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig. From 1653 until his death he was professor of mathematics at Jena University. He was the teacher of Leibniz in 1663, and other notable students. He also worked to make science more widely accessible to the public, and what would today be considered a populariser of science. Through Leibniz, Weigel is the intellectual forefather of a long tradition of mathematicians that connects a great number of professionals to this day. The Mathematics Genealogy Project lists more than 50,000 “descendants” of Weigel’s, including Lagrange, Euler, Poisson and several Fields Medalists.

He concurred with Jakob Ellrod’s “Mittel-Calendar”, and with the advocacy of Leibniz and others, that the date of Easter should be based on the astronomical measurement of the spring equinox and the next full moon. He followed Jakob Ellrod to the Imperial Diet in Regensburg to advocate the use of the Mittel-Calendar or New Gregorian calendar.

The crater Weigel on the Moon is named after him. In 1999 a colloquium was held in Jena on the 300th anniversary of his death.

Elrod Family Timeline

Check out the new timeline of the Elrod Family at the link below. Let me know what you think! Share with your family if you are interested please.  —> Elrod Timeline




“Gefreeser Geschichte – historical legacy of the pastor and local historian Anton Christian David Ellrodt”

Gefreeser Geschichte

The book “Gefreeser Geschichte – historical legacy of the pastor and local historian Anton Christian David Ellrodt” tells much of the story of the city of Gefrees. Published in 1974, the author Heinz Wolfrum tells the story of Gefrees and much was in Anton Christian David Ellrodt’s own words. Written in German and translated by Google Translate, the book tells the history of Gefrees in his time and the author adds more recent history. This gives a great picture of how life and times were back then. Because the book was translated by Google, the flow is not the best. You can easily follow what is trying to be said and it is well worth the read.

Anton Christian David Ellrodt was the 4th Great Grandson of the first known Ellrod – Jacob Ellrod.


“It was the 14th April 1831, when the Royal Bavarian chapter Senior, pastor and school inspector Anton Christian David Ellrodt in the most beautiful maturity of his manhood and duties ended his day’s work and did his rich life as quickly as unexpected, was ended. The sincere and deep sympathy, which he puts at all times and on all occasions of the day, had early directed his attention to the historical research of ancient his it so expensive parochial parish and the success of his efforts led him soon to the conclusion that results obtained to provide in a separate processing of posterity. The result was the well-known `Ellrodt-book ‘description of Gefrees and the villages belonging to the parish. Same time, this book delivers on the historical development of Gefrees from that time. For the history and local historian of this work is a welcome and praiseworthy gift for the church were, a monument of love of country and an expensive legacy. “These lines are dedicated to the man who wrote the book that today there are very few copies exist – that `Ellrodt-book ‘. And who has always had the privilege to acquaint themselves with this work will have scrolled it with reverence. Wrote it but a member of that clan, which has co-written a powerful piece of history in Gefrees – man of the dynasty that family who gave their name to a street in Gefrees and a school.

Written by Ellrodt:

“Gefrees, a pleasant and fine place among all his peers, in the country the ‘most beautiful country town’, the main road leading to Saxony and Bohemia, and is considered very nutritious because of its beautiful Feldbaues. A place that does show how the earlier documents, received from the Brandenburg princes freedoms as they were allowed to enjoy the cities Kulmbach or Berneck “. In a marginal note in Ellrodtbuch here is also literal noted: “It was usually namely, that the emperor and princes of a place which itself was often no city that freedoms one insonderheit neighboring city ertheilten, eg 1528 22 April privelegierte Louis Wunsiedel or equal Eger Helmbrechts same court in 1449. The records of 1544, 1586 and 1639 gave Gefrees the freedom to hold a weekly market every Wednesday, and in chronological order, it got its own fairs. The privilege for Illingsche jetzte Funkische pharmacy of 24 April 1744 was settled by Margrave Frederick of Bayreuth, which places the predicate Gefrees little town. ” After a highest available namely, was at the request of the local magistrate of 3 April 1827 for the award of the predicate of a city for the market Gefrees the then 142 houses and 1300 souls had not received because the benefits of a city according to the “Regulation of the municipalities of 17 1818 may have been “sized. provisions Thus already at that time were also more than conditions. But such a place needed at least one historian, because the records of the “geographer of the Upper Main Circle” were incomplete. And even if the “travel writer” Gefrees suited as a “good Nennslingen” because of the delicious trout in the jovial Mayor Carl Lochmüller (in the inn “The Golden Lion”, so rest assured Ellrodt, on 15 May 1812, French Emperor Napoleon refreshments had taken) and later with his son, Thomas Lochmüller, famous, yet is on the site itself and its history, none received – to Ellrodt undertook. For a description of Gefrees some literary notes: Gefrees was originally an integral part of the rule Berneck, which was subsequently broken up in the offices Gefrees, Goldkronach, stone, and Streitau Wirsberg. And this was the description of Gefrees: “The royal Gefrees Protestant parish is located in the upper Maik rice of the Kingdom of Bavaria, in the royal Berneck Dean and the Royal Court Country Gefrees. It consists of the market, 10 villages and seven hamlets, Individually and mills and from old war 54 yards of exclusive Söldengütlein Kesselberg Langenzell and Entenmühle and contains 2728 souls, or 613 Protestant families in 337 houses. After a directory of Sunday, the parish priest in 1785 consisted of 234 houses and 320 households “.

Kornbach or Lübnitz:

Occurring today question whether, after its confluence the river is named Kornbach or Lübnitz below the sports field will be probably never be known, because Ellrodt this can be open when he writes: “The Kornbach takes on the northern foothills of the High heath of several inflows originated receive in the next village Kornbach his name and is already a quarter of an hour later a mill, called the button in Gefrees hammer and a saw mill, which was built in 1827 and three grinding mills in motion. He takes his run in a straight line through Gefrees between the suburbs and the market. Of the water can (Ellrodt writes “its” – so that seems the question, “the” or to be clarified, “the” Kornbach) when it opens at the upper mill of the entrance into the market, and the cobbled market place be cleaned . The Lübnitz (or Limmetzbach), which Gefrees lengthwise as it einschließet right and left to a peninsula, rises in the Rüglersreuther forest (reinforced by the devil Fountain and the Zedlitzer brook, the Zedlitzer and Lübnitzer mill) combines in Gefrees at the bridge with the grain stream and sets as its run in a narrow Talgrunde on the Croft, Green Steiner and duck mill, where he united with the Oelsnitz “. As I said, it remains unclear which bears the name of the stream to the confluence with the Association Ölschnitz.

To natural products Ellrodt touches in his work:

“The soil is light and cold and not very fertile. He has to warming and fertilization much fertilizer necessary. Man plows still the old Wendish narrow beds to allow the excess water to drain easily through the many furrows or hereafter devised the air more surface. Among all crops, potatoes are the most plentiful. These thrive not only very, but also of particular quality. Even the flax gets very well in the local area and it is driven by the residents a not insignificant trade with it. The garden fruits does not seem to be well suited this climate, because they do not want to thrive. Although nearly every citizen and compatriot has its little garden, yet incredibly lots of garden fruits of Bayreuth and Bamberg are sold in this neighborhood. Although the local rough and physical climate in general prevents the flourishing of delicate plants, so this area is not poor in phanerogamischen rare plants. My estimable friend, the pharmacist and mayor Heinrich Christian Funck, dahier, the goodness to call me in the parish districts Gefrees over 700 native plants, ferns and mosses has. ” 700 These herbs are Ellrodtbuch actually written in its Latin name. “Also, the mineralogist,” it turned Ellrodt stated, “takes place in territory of local abundant satisfaction. So Chyaslolit are in slate with God’s Mountain. Hornblende schist with pistacite and Malakolit in Böseneck and Kastenmüller-Buhl, garnet with green stone, albite at Lübnitz, here and there quartz and mica found. The bulk of our mountains is the granite. In addition, one finds shale at Hämmerlas, Allaunschiefer was at Tannenreuth (where broken even in 1733, gneiss on Putzenberg and chert in the area of Zedlitz used for the highway and is beautifully marbled “.

Through food sources is stated:

“The principal sources of income of the local residents are of field crops, animal husbandry and livestock trade. In the former, the greatest possible diligence is used and spared no obstacle to increase the yield and to cultivate barren unused areas. A not inconsiderable item in the bustle is the breeding of pigs. Most citizens have sows that give them no inconsiderable profit, which adds a nice amount of money will get to the Fatherland. Several people, mostly butchers trade with pigs from Bohemia and Franconia. In addition to the livestock, the Bierbräuerei and field crops, the local area is also distinguished by tree woolen cloth manufactories. The maker JA Herold dahier and Mr. Schmidt of Lübnitz drive this business with the happiest advantages. The skillful artist JH Götschel manufactured dahier excellent for two years, the usefulness of Vienna still-beating, messnige leaves for Weber, for knitters and stuff maker, according to his own invention. Moreover, many Fläßbretter be cut and driven with them a considerable trade to Holland on the three saw-mills. The other various trades in the parish are: 12 merchants, one Lebküchner, 1 food stall, 4 Gold and silver workers, 2 belt champion, 10 grinding and cutting Müller, 4 Tanner, 4 dyers, 13 bakers, 28 butchers, 4 Büttner (!) , 2 glasses, 1 Horn Drechsler, 3 master bricklayer with 40 journeymen, 1 soap-boiler and light educators, 3 carpenters, 2 nailers, 1 saddler, 1 red jug, 2 locksmith, 7 blacksmiths, 2 Seiler, 1 hosier, 2 potters, 4 Wagner, 5 Toy Maker , 3 tanner, 1 hatter, 13 tailors, 14 shoemakers, weavers 132 with 139 fellows, 6 bands Weaver, 130 farmers, 82 day laborers and 61 spinners. ”

To the description itself is specified as follows:

“The market Gefrees, broad of a 2040 feet long and 75 feet beautiful, flat main road and a greater part also cobbled side street, called the suburb is and is intersected by the particle stream in length, is 5 hours from Bayreuth, as much of Wunsiedel and yard, 4 hours from Kulmbach, 1 ½ hours from Berneck and 2 hours of Munchberg. It is located almost in the center of this city and therefore has an extremely lively and befahrne road that goes through the middle of the market, and the Commun 710 thalers annually enters the leased paving money. Around noon rises close before Gefrees that reaches greenstone protracted and very well grown plaster mountain, which stands in close connection with the Raith mountains. The view of the town opens up to the morning after Neuenreuth where it is very close but limited by the gallows and in the evening by the boiler and Lutzen Reuther mountain. Throughout the prudence from the summit of Putzenberg from one notices almost 40 larger and smaller place and individually.

The whole market comprises 153 houses and barns without the Schupfen and includes 344 families with 1498 souls. In 1786 only 120 houses were without the two churches, two Bräuhäuser and the slaughterhouse. 1692 were nearly 90 Civil houses in the market, so do Gefrees has increased by 33 houses for 139 years by 65 and 45 years. To the specified number are counted following: The rectory. The present parsonage has been determined, without doubt, in the establishment of the local Protestant pastor of the parish to the apartment. It may well be a long time been a very small insignificant little house, the same from the barn and in the anterior part only of one storey with a bay window was in the posterior part. Only in 1668 did the minister M. Jac. Ellrodt made the motion that on the back of the house or a floor with a Studierstüblein and some chambers should be built because he his son M. Ph. Andr. Ellrodt would accept as Subsitut. . 1553 and 1718, this house also each burned The new school house that was built from the ground up on the Chantorat vom Rath Burger Michael Heinrich donated school garden in 1822, has over the anterior door of the house on a schwarzmarmornen panel inscription in gold letters: ` for the instruction of youth ‘. On 26 March 1822 was the foundation `the west ‘laid with great solemnity. Afternoon by 2 clock is moved from the town hall in solemn `conducte ‘the place of the to be built school building and after laying the foundation stone kept in a hewn opening Mayor Funck a box with the directory on the time of commencement and the name of the royal servants, magistrates members and school teachers. ” pastor Füssel held after the laying of the foundation stone a short speech in the midst of a large quantity children and adults. He said in part: “The suspicion has spread a rumor that I was alone to blame for the emergence of this new school building and blasphemies about my gray hairs were distributed, but I wear with honor. I endured with patience and silence in the hope that the future will justify the innocence “Why Ellrodt remarked.” Yes it is justified, noble, very worthy man, for this glorious for three schools appropriate school building is now the joy of the school community and ornament of the town! Those poisonous blasphemies now turn into blessings on you and your they gained merit will always be a memorial in honor of the most rewarding memory of you be! ” is About the Hirtenhaus noted: “This house was formerly victory or hospital (Nosocomium) and has since the old shepherd’s house was sold in the suburbs ohnweit Cremitz to the best of the new school building of houses, apartment transforms the shepherds. ” There was at that time the following public buildings: the local church, dedicated to St. John. It formed an oblong square, and measured according Ellrodt “115 shoe shoe in length and 48 in width. Before the fire in 1533 it seems still standing after the vaulted presbytery to close only 35 Shoe 25 Shoe length and width to have had. In addition to the church door at midday, the year of 1560 is the year in which it was rebuilt and expanded by the nave. On the western side of the church speak about the main entrance, walled but prominent sandstone is in the size of 1 ¼ shoe and in the form of a calyx – a symbol perhaps of the Protestant Church. Because the same in 1560 with the extension of the Church, so soon after the Reformation, walled, so this opinion is more credible. In 1718 on 3 June, the church was again a sad prey of the fire. Although a large portion of people homes were burned as a victim of the same, then the community beeiferte but in helping with the restoration of their church. ” . Should this church, as is well known, once more be a prey to the flames in 1872 , the cemetery church, observes the historian, had been built in 1594, as the following inscription says: “Niclas Henning. Jobst Knol. Hans Pflugk. The masters have this building with its Geseln Anno 1594 d 7 May is the basic set and d 2 Julii volend. The time Johann Hofmann Pfarh. Matthew Vogt Holstein. Math Glaser. B. Hans carrier. Henry Krines. Samet R. Conrad Krines. Thomas Schmidt. ” In 1716, we found this church or chapel, as it was commonly called, too limited for the community and it was decided, therefore, not only to increase, but they also set up better in the interior. their origin is reported over “According to a legend on the graveyard behind the church on the north side of houses, moderately uplifting mountain stood a chapel in the earliest times and the churchyard or Leichenhof have been located. This announcement is supported by two circumstances and probably made. Not only the fields and on the hill located is called God arable fields, whatever name they might have of the current near cemetery, but it has in the stood on an otherwise to the local parish belonging, Hühneräckerlein mentioned, sold the field, the Chapel should be, the present owner of the same master glazier Andreas Hering found a crypt vault of about 12 shoe in width. ” After 100 years, this cemetery was for the city too small and therefore was in April 1701 in the direction of Mühlbach by “10 shoe and against the Anger “expanded to 17 shoe. The churchyard wall was initially covered with bricks, which is why it was decided because of the costly entertainment, to prove in 1734 with shells, for which the royal, Polish Legation BC Schlenk donated 30 dollars. These steps is described in the Town Hall: “It is on the same a little tower with a bell and clock. The bell is rung only that which is produced fire. Previously, before the same meat market, but these were torn away from there and the dilapidated town hall and in 1780 rebuilt from the ground up. Even with the church always had this same fire accident. ” The slaughterhouse was in 1779 on a site which was a desolate fire place, built because the old meat market distorted the Town Hall and the lovely market square. In Ellrodtbuch is literally: “There are all in the same 14 or 28 split bench or battle righteousness. Slaughtered and gepfündet in the same year about the following: 45 oxen, 36 cows, 36 calving, 284 calves, 450 sheep and Geise, 322 pigs. Moreover, even slaughtered the house of the citizens and veraufschlaget: 20 cows, 12 calving, 6 calves, 4 Geise, 118 pigs, so the whole year 1333 piece “. Ellrodt Even the brewery devoted his attention, as he reported, “At what time in Gefrees the brewery had its beginning, can not be stated with certainty. In 1557 Gefrees, Berneck Goldkronach and Wiersberg had this justice not yet, but had to take another beer benöthigte of Bayreuth. Only the real cities had to be able to brew the beer justice before this time, and only the castle adelichen men and priests and later the officials so much they needed to drink her house, could brew umgeldsfrei. Would not let you brew yourself this, they received the Umgeld for a brew paid back by the Umgelde. ” That Gefrees the brewing justice later than, for example, White City and Kirchenlamitz received, was because the market was only provided with a neck Court. Kirchenlamitz had for his city law already in 1374 a “right Mulczen with municipal law and briefs” and White City in 1545 has already brought some of his deputies in the parliament to Ansbach of its brewed beer of the princely rule as a gift.

Description of the surrounding villages:

For example, while Cremitz today is an integral part of Gefrees, it looked at the time Ellrodt this way: “Cremitz is a Vorwerk 3 mansions us 24 souls. It is only about 50 paces from Gefrees. Of the 3 owners still had to be delivered in 1745 at Army trains a touring car and a horse. The inhabitants are citizens of here. It is said to have existed before Gefrees, which also makes the Wendish name probably. ” God’s Mountain is located south on a mountain slope, a quarter of an hour of Gefrees and has a wide open view. It has seven houses and eight families with 42 souls. The forest mountain hill with God’s Mountain (or Gottlesberg and Götzemarsberg) was perhaps a colony of Druids. You want at least on the eastern hill at Schamlesberg, that’s just a quarter of an hour away, have seen clear traces of old German grave mounds. green hills is a beautiful hamlet of two homes and two families with eleven souls. The tithes of these two Baungüter, which is commonly called Haas tithes, enjoys the Bishopric of Bamberg. using the box trouble is reported: “It consists of a house with the grinding and cutting mill on the combined grain and Lübnitzbach. She is one of the most prestigious mills in the local area and has very good properties. In older church books and still in official documents it was called Hammergut because instead of a hammer mill grinding mill has passed, of which one finds not only track, but also the anvil sticks in the well. Moreover, according Gefäll and receipt book from 1810 tax was paid for the hammer of justice. The name box mill has received this Hammergut by its owner, the box officials Math Jacob Ellrodt. The son of the same, who afterwards became mill owners and customs inspector Gottlieb Friedrich Michael Ellrodt requested in 1759 the Conzession for brewing beer on his Hammergut and is also at least to two `brew beer ‘without Umgeld given permission.” description of the other Gefreeser “outworks” looks like this: The Ducks mill consists of a mill and a Nebenhäuslein, two new families and souls. It lies on the Ölschnitz that is rich in trout and crayfish. This mill is known because of the glorious verfertigten barley. It is a three-quarter hour from here, and was built in 1701 by Henry Foertsch. greenstone – a village house number 22, 37 families with 146 souls. The inhabitants consist of four farmers, 16 artisans and six laborers. The land once belonged to the local Schlossgut. Friendly and romantic is the location and has, under the protection of owls mountain (of many wells, springs and very good ore is said to have included), Kastenmüller “Buhl” and the Putzenberg a mild climate, the fruit with which the inhabitants with plenty of zeal and success employed, is very appropriate. There is a grinding and cutting mill, cut in very many boards and sent abroad in the united with the Lübnitzbach Kornbach. Instead of this mill stood here in ancient times a hammer. The residents of greenstone were otherwise subjects it Bishopric of Bamberg. Although it was in the margrave’s land area and belonged to the jurisdiction of the Office markgräflichem Gefrees – but in terms of all other Juristiction but it belonged to Vogten and box office market Schorgast until the principalities of Ansbach and Bayreuth in 1792 came into Prussian possession. Also, the lower wild belonged to the bishop of Bamberg. lock greenstone . The origin of the first lock is unknown. All that may be stated about can not be justified by documented. Usually one writes, no doubt because of the name, its construction of the family of the Lords of stone, which also “stone castle” to owe its origin and from which in 1119 already an R upertinus and his brother R ahovon S protein are called. Although the castle seems greenstone previously just “the stone” and to have been named later “green stone”, perhaps because of the green valley or occurring on the valley wall greenstone. Alone, so a little proof can be given that the men have the lock “stone” built of stone, so also missing on greenstone historical documents. If it is too risky if you impute the application of the “green stone” of the Swiss franc as local family of Hirschberg? That this and not Sparneckische family greenstone had in 1577 in holding, the following will show: Can the possession of the deer Bergisch family attested from 1330 to 1577 (ie 247 years), can not be accepted until the beginning of this castle with more probability than that is the same without any reason transmits to the family of stone, not of the mark in the history of this castle is to be found? The age of the family of Hirschberg is this contrary opinion anyway, since a derivative thereof, Gebhard Count of Tollenstein and Hirschberg, already in 1042 occurs as bishop Aich Städt and in 1055 even as Pope Victor II in history. One suspects so, that also from this family is also said to have been very significant gewesene Rudolph stone castle, which was removed less than two hours from Gefrees built. Why does one ascribe the origin of this castle with a strange green stone family? “I almost want to believe,” writes Ellrodt, “that the castle men of Rudolph stone – not dedicated their high Felsenschloß the protection of vulnerable persons, as it were approached her aristocratic able, but this have built in order to rob passing travelers – including Greenstone to support have collected and transport to a base purpose. “According Ellrodts so greenstone was a real robber barons. He emphasizes this by saying: “. Because its hidden and observation of the main road so convenient location offered the hand to” But if so many of the surrounding castles have dishonored by an unworthy acquisition, they seem at least earlier, as well as those to have considered a better prey nest Rudolph Stone, which was destroyed by the magistrate to Eger or the king Wenzelslaus 1412th In 1330 already Friedrich and Heilmann of Hirschberg greenstone have to prescribe the Bishopric of Bamberg as an open house and bishop because of that Befehdungszeiten crew accepted. But since there was the Count’s castle in castle district, saw the viscount as a lack of trust and friendship, by the Lords of Hirschberg to know foreign occupation of his country. The pernicious consequence of this willingness over the bishops was the destruction of these festivals, which are then so long remained a ruin until the Jeleniogórska changed their political views and tended to count’s castle site. In 1361 they threw themselves into the protective arms of the Viscount Frederick IV greenstone remained long after precious possession of this family. In 1571, still living a Hans Ernst von Hirschberg, who also resided alternately to Schwarzenbach an der Saale. This complained in a dispute with the Mayor and Council to Kirchenlamitz that the family would come to all of their older feudal bonds formed by a green stone in the castle years ago “great and lamentable” fire. It is this Hans Ernst von Hirschberg has lifted from the baptism in 1577 the pastor Johann Hofmann Gefrees to a child. Episcopal Church in the Green Book (the child was born without a doubt in Bishops Green, where he had probably fled because of the plague then raging here) it says literally: “1577 Hans Ernst ago Johan Hofman pfr. Gefres the Son was baptized Monday 15 July Daufbat was the noble and honor Veste Hanß Junker Ernst von Hirschberg to green stone “. So it is incorrect, if it is claimed greenstone was lying there after its destruction in Albrechtinischen War (1523) in its ruins. Even after the above documentary evidence and also by the local and dispute Auer church books, the owner of the castle greenstone probably have lived longer than 100 years later. In God’s House bill of 1604 Adam Wallenrod has the local church verwilligt 10 guilders. After the dispute Auer baptismal register of 1610 was baptized green stone Georg Adam Wallenrod and after the death register of 11 March 1611, the same accompanied by dortaus in an “honest process” to Streitau and buried in the local church. , the of Wall harvester greenstone have taken of the deer salvors in 1578, while after the death of Hans Rudolph Wallenrod (died February 24 1659 ) back to the Bishopric of Bamberg, from which it had Arnold von Hirschberg anno 1477 received as a feudal knight, fell to. From this time (1659) it remained uninhabited and can be gradually disintegrate. Ellrodt writes: “Yet there are some walls of this castle, the greater part is unfortunately torn down by the local residents and been used for newly built homes or repairs. A cellar is still intact and is now benützet of the local Mahlmüller as the owner of the castle hill. “(Author’s Note: This cellar still exists today). Several times has experienced destructive fates, but rose again greenstone. Under the Hussitenanführer Procopius Rasus, the Horde continued to ravage everything by fire and sword, and greenstone was cremated. The Librarian Jaek claims in his history of Bamberg from 1811, “that the Green Steiner participated equally as Thurnau, Aufsees, Frey rock and Plankenfels the peasant uprising in 1525 and ensure their homes were burnt and torn down. “historian Helfrecht insured in his” Ruins “that the castle was like the Albrechtinischen war victims and destroyed by the federal levels, while Franz Friedrich Hefner, Vogt Marktschorgast and copper mine, in 1693 noted: “The castle is burned and sunken 125 years ago.” This fire was so pulling 125 years from 1693, falling to the year 1568. Since three fires followed in such rapid succession that hardly a Reconstruction may have been possible a misunderstanding here should perhaps have crept in and it be in the fire disaster of 1523 and 1525 at one and the same. The castle estates were inherited in 1715, along with the fish water to the local subjects and sold. There were 104 days work fields and meadows which their ownership changed to 3000 guilders. Hämmerlas is described with five houses, six families and 29 souls. (1 ½ Kriegshof and two Soldengütlein which 120 oxen, 8 cows, 14 pieces smaller cattle and 64 sheep entertained. According to legend, also a hammer mill to have existed. Hermersreuth consisted of seven houses, eight families and 50 souls (2 ½ war courtyards) . Messrs. Wallenrod to Plos and Hohenknoden to have been formerly the feudal lords. For their Böseneck pastor Ellrodt used nor the spelling Bösenek or Beßnek and he held it at the time, “with the new house in Greenstone” from 12 stores and 91 souls have passed, “but which are still gepfarrt to the 1 ¼ hour away because of Catholic parish market Schorgast 5 houses with 34 souls who profess the Protestant Church. Culmbacher It lies on the road and Baireuther ¼ hour . of Gefrees and in a annehmlichen Thales basically ” Previously lived there a Lord of Falkenstein He bought on February 13, 1703, the major farm of Thomas Ott at 900 Frankish coins Later smashed and he sold the property -.. including the Gefreeser innkeeper from Golden Lion, Carl Loch Muller, who was probably the begütertste man of Gefrees at that time. Said Lord of Falkenstein incidentally, was died on February 27, 1715 and buried in the local cemetery. According to legend, is on the Ölschnitz, the Böseneck cuts, at the foot of boiler mountain is an iron hammer to have been operated, sold his hammer right and was transferred to the franc hammer. Moreover Ellrodt notes that a “not yet organisirte” school was in Böseneck. Langenzell however no longer exists already. However, it has Located behind the Luitpoldhöhe towards Metzler Reuth and existed at the time Ellrodts from a single house with attached barn and was built in 1716. lived there two families with seven souls. Lübnitz or Limmetz was the historian quarter hour of Gefrees located, consisting of eleven houses, six families and 70 souls. “It has a grist mill, which is set by the Lübnitz in motion.” According to a transcript of 1755, the congregation then consisted of a Burggut and Pfeifferhof. yet in the 17th century have in Lübnitz of deer Bergische and had Tettauische families lived. In 1644 a Mr. Dietrich von Hirschberg there died Mrs. Rosina von Hirschberg, born of Sparneck (the Wolf Heinrich von Hirschberg Wife). too, whose wife was a native of Marktredwitz and Heinrich Sigmund Tettau at this time there their residences. Among the part of those goods plots have been later many bought by the local citizens. The livestock was given at this time, therefore, only with a horse, 16 steers, 24 bulls, 20 cows, 40 pieces young cattle and 56 Schaafen . Metzler Reuth was already a handsome place and consisted of 46 houses, 75 families and 263 souls, 32 farmers, 1 Wagner, 2 blacksmiths, 1 Mahlmüller, 1 wood turner, 1 cutter, 1 merchant, 2 carpenters, 1 mason, 18 day laborers and . two Schenk hosts Literally it means: “It has a good fertile southwestern location and is ¾ hour of Gefrees away It builds very good Getraid much flax and fruit in After official land register v. 1716 – 1755 was the same earlier.. 1 ½ Box Official, 4 Amtssteinische and 4 belonging to the manor greenstone war courtyards one heals. these three Untherthanen then had three Schultheisen, which were chosen and committed every year to St. James from the local office. The Box Official farms had otherwise Frohnen with 6 horse and ½ car, and afford the Kobler hand Frohn In war, the inhabitants had to do duty a total of 10 war courts to Röhrenhof The forester had annually supplied 8 cheese or be Paid for a 6 Pfn of this community -…., the so-called flowing through the village Schleifenbächlein, the local, the drives grinding mill, has black dotted or stone trout. This village can prove its existence to 470 years documented because in 1360 Burggraf Friedrich has the same redeemed from the deer salvors to greenstone. The current live stock consists of 92 oxen, 90 cows, 108 small cattle and 260 Schaafen. ” About Neuenreuth one can read: “It is buying ¼ hour from here to the Wunsiedler road and has 8 houses, 12 families and 61 souls in this village had the other official stone 1 ½ yard and a barren Hammergut. . According to a deed of gift of 1591, the mortgage shilling official owner and Innhaber Mathes Wallenrod has L. Schärner given the Hammergut which to Gefrees in fief. According to a bill of sale from September 24, 1644 the Hammergut was, after the most damaging war, unrest and it made Unwerth because, 12 years located desolate, the buildings were entered and invaded to bought 84 guilder purchase money and 4 Thaler Leihkauf by Michael Schoeffel. ” About Schweinbach writes Ellrodt: “It is located in the forest, ¼ hour of Metzler Reuth to which community it belongs to and is in a house and two households. The field crops and live stock is low. ” In wounds Bach lived at that time 18 families with 104 souls in 14 houses. It consisted of 3 ½ war courts. The geese tithes and from each cow a Käs (2 ¼ Pf difficult) and 16 garden chickens moved into the parish Gefrees annually Literally it means. “For the Käs she receives a Requivalent of 1 Gulden 24 Kreuzer, but may also require the same place Käs in natura” The community had previously unmeasured Frohn. to afford a car and 4 Ross. The livestock is given a horse, 30 oxen, 28 cows, 56 young cattle and 82 sheep. Though this village is quite northeast, and fruit was built and planted more fruit trees every year. Tannenreuth is east an hour from Gefrees and consists of seven houses and three outbuildings with 12 families and 29 souls. “To this village,” writes the local historian, “is a not far remote hammer and a Schmeldzhütte called hope toward God. Both but is currently completely received. Neither of a hammer or a smelter the fir Reuther want to know something, also there are no traces of it more visible., the grain Bacher iron hammer, commonly called button hammer, which is located a quarter of an hour of this, is formerly of the Gefreeser market -Weiher ohnweit Tannenreuth have been. A Oleum Mine was powered ohnweit Tannenreuth in 1757 because, according to the register of the dead of this year is the Johann Jahreiß, which in this oleum (oil)-mine was working on a pump in the Schächt fallen and was buried here. ” About the place Zettlitz (or Zedlitz as it was then written in part) one can read:. “It is an hour of Gefrees, has 34 houses and 46 families and 222 souls are usually 8 War yards expected, of which 7 the Fürstl. From Nice TPF office to Schwarzenbach an der Saale and the Royal Rent office Gefrees are lehnbar. This village has an organized school, a considerable mill and a massively built inn., the stock of cattle is considerable, namely, 262 oxen, cows and young cattle and 262 sheep. Revenue for the Getraidebaues is not very efficient, because the climate is harsh and cold. Two farms have to pay a ground rent of Getraid, hemp seeds, garden chickens, Eyern and cheeses to the Gefreeser parish. ” Even the Kesselberg forgot Ellrodt not when he wrote: “It consists of two houses, one of which on the south side to standing against the case and are ½ hour away from here The former was under a contract of Johann Georg Seifert, master weaver in Lützen Reuth and the. 1804 built k parishes Gefrees and Marktschorgast on Pfarrzehntbaren land. was the same trained a day’s work of 360 rods of the house a little garden and some meadows to an annual charge of bushels of barley at both parishes. The northern house was built in 1792 built by Lorenz farmer from Steppach in Pommersfelden. ” With Witzleshofen the description of the surrounding villages to Gefrees is completed. From this church is reported that otherwise 11 houses for the local parish belonged, but it was subject to Dominica Lien for the parish Gefrees on 1 . Nov. 1814 gepfarrt Streitau and released, according to the parish pastoral official protocol of 28 Novbr. 1814 from the this-worldly religious association.

History and Origin of Gefrees:

The opinions about the origin are based on no historical documents, but are assumptions and traditions Godfather. Our historian Ellrodt reported that some of the name of a folrenwald – kinforenen trees – derive and maintain that the first stand hunting “Kinnföricht” or to pronounce it differently, “Geförles” or “Kefferlas” was named what Gef – r – it supposed to have originated. According to the general opinion, however, this name is derived from an old German economy, which has been invested in this “hostile”, “wooded” area for travelers and teamsters. Literally it means to Although the `Reuth ‘and` Zauschen’ on the high pine after Hutherbrunnen, went a way, yet went the main street of Bohemia and Saxony here by (At the Reuth is in the earliest times after the legend have been a lodging house for travelers that road). Since Emperor Frederick I in the year 1179 mostly stayed to Eger and the German princes often gathered around him, which is why the road “Egra” had traveled lively, as was dahier a Bewirthungs and accommodation institute a more pressing so desire, especially as both roads intersect here. The still existing and designated by a stone lion head corner house behind the rectory (today Nüssel’sche property), where otherwise the road will be gone, and the means mill and another house in the suburbs are now issued yet for the first houses. The inn was named to seven `sausages’ and has subsequently led to the tag to the black eagle, which is now at the official box built by MJ Ellrodt home and has turned into a golden eagle. The last owner of this house, bailiff and council Maw, 1766 damaligem owner of the guest house to the black eagle, Zapf, exchanged and this has transferred the economic justice with there. ” From this inn so the name Gefrees said to have originated because most the carriers were not only happy when they reached the place in this onetime wild area, but also because an excellent tasting with venison, trout, gobies and other good fish and food – or an old German dialect is a good F raa beta or G efr ä ß – namely, a good meal, was to be hoped for. This version seems more likely and more natural than the former, to be forced assertion that Gefrees of G ö ef RLES had arisen. Even the local church book of 1635 saw the beginning of the place thus: “Gefrees has been initially only a tavern or inn, called for Siebenwurst, is called to the place, which anjetzo Amberhide, the lion Gäßlein, weiln there have been good draw on and you a cheap money and have a good Gefräß has can get, as the name istvermuthlichen therefore been grown and because of Nennslingen called Gefrees. ” Gefrees is earlier than 1179, when Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa called the he had Adelheid have passed the Princess of Margrave Diepoldsberg of Vohberg to wife and got through it Eger with the Egerländlein) prompted the opening of this road, as the respected Count Beringer of Sulzbach and his famous compatriot and contemporary, the bishop of Merano – the Holy of Bamberg – the cultivation of fichtel mountainous area in Berneck Gefrees and Bishops Green in the years 1102 – 1139 very deserving made and the name Berneck Bernreuth, Birnstengel, Bernbächlein and Bernsgrün the name Beringer immortalized in Kornbach for ever. Even the monasteries Weissenlohe 1131, Heilsbron 1132, long home and Marienweiher owe these two their establishment and glorification.

The gray antiquity:

In the dark time of the announcement and the aborigines Ellrodt tries to bring the following light: to be able to “As much as I look into that gray Atherthum prehistoric times our area and conceals the dense forehand of these our eyes, ventilate wish so eludes this our face crisis unerkennbarste in the distance. It would therefore be such a big presumption, as a risky business to try to shed some light on this uncertainty. What time and who was the first nomad people, who settled in the local Erdstriche, therefore, remains uncertain. Did not even the oldest Germans, when and how their ancestors came to the country, which they appropriated as their homeland, how we should be able to unveil this impenetrable darkness after so many centuries? To escape this painful uncertainty, they worshiped the progenitor of their great nation to Tuisko or Thusko the Erderzeugten and his son Mannus as the fountainhead of the people and donors. Thus our hidden inquiring glances remains that dark time of the announcement, only so far as we know, specifically from Roman sources that our German fatherland, and especially also francs centuries after Christ’s birth was still a wild desert of thick forests and vast swamps. You notice in general that it was a terrible because many forests, waters, and because standing puddles unhealthy and desolate country. The sky was darkened by ascending fog the greater part of the summer and severe winter froze the few erupting sun with predominant power. ” And yet this country was not neglected determined by nature alone the seats of wild animals. The people of the Hermundurians is known by history as the first and for its pleasant disposition, also a popular folk fichtel this mountainous area. The area of Kulmbach, Bayreuth, Kronach, Bamberg and Coburg, and the whole Vogtland be referred to as the branches thereof. , the German name of this tribe is lost while in the 3rd Century of history, only one thought, and not without reason that in lieu thereof francs (free Leut) had not changed but only the name of the tribe, because they defeat for the Romans, their community, mighty and proud enemy, were closely associated with each other in order to assert their freedom against the enemy unbearable yoke. But the more these brave “Germans” (Franconia) pushed the enemy back to the Rhine and the deeper they penetrated into Gaul, the more they felt their northern neighbors, the Thuringian, nachzurücken encouraged to take over the abandoned seats. But the Frankish king Dietrich (Theodoric) was a little unwilling to give up the abandoned francs, but he wanted his kingdom and then spread out and smash the great Thuringian Empire in connection with the Saxons 531st (The Thuringian and their king Hermanfried were overcome in Ronneburg 524). Having participated in this war, the Saxons would reap the fruits of victory. The northern and the southern half of them fell, including the Bayreuth land belonged to the Franks. This combined with other conquered by the Bavarians countries part Norgau now became Unlike Western franc or the main hiss, Nassau and Gallic regions, East Franks and in relation to the Radenz or Rednitzgau called. was not long them was the quiet possession Ostfrankens granted because already 542 rose a Slavic tribe, the Sorbs (Soraben) and spread with more engaging power over almost half of Europe. From the Caucasus and the Volga ago, they are already in the 5th Be approached century and penetrated from the Elbe and Saale ago, but partly also from Bohemia, into East Francia. Especially difficult were the Bohemia ago sunken Wendish peoples to fight because they sought to establish themselves in our Elblag mountain and forest areas. Charlemagne gave them at last, after he had defeated us tributary which was also confirmed by the King Arnulf 989 permission to grow there, and to live according to their customs and habits. That our area also served as her “adopted home” to prove the name Cremitz, Lübnitz, Zettlitz and Oelsnitz. Also, everything has what with the syllable “Reuth” ends as Hermersreuth, Metzler Reuth, Tannenreuth and Neuenreuth on the industrious arms out through the cut down our wildlands and brought this area into a physical path of regulated education. Them we owe not only hamlets, villages, but also significant places. Even Castles they tried to build their own safety. The mountains they tried to wrest his metal treasures and to promote by mining in the steepest surveys settlements. Them, the Slavic and Wendish but actually quite honorable strangers so belongs the merit of having revived and developed our area through their enduring power. However, for the country was controlled order, Charles arranged the Great and Louis the German, who got the division of the Frankish monarchy at Verdun Germany, marrow or Gaugrafen of which should govern and defend the you have given districts. Among these guardians and overseers called the history of our area especially the counts of Babenberg and Bamberg. After the unfortunate and sad case of the last of this branch, Adalbert (he was in the camp Theres command of the Emperor Louis the child because of a feud with the Bishop of Würzburg Rudolph beheaded), the 906 was “Plassenburgische Comitat” what our area had , Count of Andechs or by marriage to the Duke of Meran. This Dukes of Meran has to concede that they promoted the culture of this country. Especially Otto the Great sought to expand, but this one, although often claimed, but also still be disputed area through towns and castles Nidsen to legend, in the years 1248 was murdered. This duke died the male sex, and his possessions were his three brothers-Burggraf of Nuremberg Frederick III, Count Otto von Orlamünde, and Count Friedrich of Truhendingen. Otto von Orlamünde, whose headquarters in Thuringia, was received by his wife Beatrix, from the house of Merano, the rule Plass castle, together with Culmbach, Trebgast, Wiersberg, Berneck etc. From Gefrees is it indeed not noticed, but no doubt because the same at that time was an integral part of the rule nor Berneck, which was subsequently broken up into office Gefrees, stone, and Goldkronach Wirsberg. Otto II of Orlamünde mortgaged his property in 1336 to 4000 Pfs. Häller (after the town hall in Swabia, where she was first coined, so called) to the castle of Count Johann Nuremberg with the condition: Should he die without male heirs, would these same possessions pawned by him against payment of 3000 pounds yet Häller fall. This advanced Johann be Burggrafentum by the rule Plassenberg with the associated patches and offices Gefrees, Berneck Kasendorf, Bishop Green, Trebgast and Himmelkron because of Orlamünde Otto died just two years after the pledge without male heirs. After the death of Frederick V., the two principalities fell to his sons, John III. and Frederick, who later became the first Kurfüsten of Brandenburg. After “Klag and Succession Letter” of 1403 Frederick was appropriated following cities and offices “above Gebürgs” the Principality “below Gebürgs” and Johann: “plaßenberg, kulmbach looking stone, Wunsiedel weysenstadt, Epprechtstein, Kirchenlamitz, gefreese, wiersberg, slose and market goldcronach, rough and bad kulm, the Neustadt pegnitz, payer reuth, Neustadt in frontste, jöslas, ezwernitz, wungesese, Newstadt at the aysch, payrstorf and gain. ” So both principalities were alternately in the possession of Viscount and Marquis of Brandenburg, to the last of them, Alexander, Regent consequence tired and without heirs, abdicated from Bordeaux in 1791 both principalities in His Mayestät King William II of Prussia. By the Peace of Vienna of 14 October 1809 was the Bayreuth Füstentum of Emperor Napoleon, who had wrested it from the crown of Prussia in 1806 and settled manage to 1810 on French bill passed to Bavaria as compensation for Tyrol. After Germany Unbound awareness had received more agreement by the division of the provinces, we also took care of the administration of justice. City, Gau and people’s courts were created, of which decided by natural law and common sense or was just settled. The chairmen and Gaurichtern time was not right to punish, but only to the priests. Even in the field and that they were only able to divine, not to punish the commander’s behest. In the 13th Century was the arbitrariness in the administration of justice and the prevailing law of the jungle and the violence of the castle men so great that travelers could only move in the custody of an armed convoy. Otherwise, the danger was to be robbed or killed. destroy King Rudolph was in 1290 about 70 robbery locks. Burggraf, Friedrich III. put the predatory aristocratic castle owners until his death in 1297 highly and therefore Frederick IV was the thick, suitable for robberies forest areas ausreuthen more and grow and connect between forests hidden villages, hamlets and castles and thus markets and cities add that he privileged with special magistrates, bailiffs, mayors and councils. In this way, like our Gefrees not only because of the lively traveled country road, but also because of the vicinity of the Green Steiner festivals earlier approached his princely much attention. It may also be the safety of passengers, have delighted many higher support. In 1378 Gefrees has still been a village. It can already close the then condition of the place. But it was even then cherished the hope that it would rise to town or market. The concession letter of Viscount Frederick was to Nuremberg to Albrecht Löneys for Schenk instead in Gefrees from 1378: “We ffriderich etc. confession, etc. that we our have love getrewen Albrecht Löneys sat to disen times to Berneck and its inherit left and verlihen our Schenkstat to the gefres, let in even the same schenkstat and schenkhaws with powerful disz briefs, so that they, or whom they put there to ir stat ewichlich wine, gift paper or other beverages, and because mügen nymant alone and different, and schüllen us and our inherit the rich and give it all a year pfunt Regenpurger lewffiger and genger pfennig coin, Halbs uff uff sant sant walburgtag and Halbs Michelstag, but who have that there zdem gefreesse a stat or a honest market would gewapnet so wish and we inherit our Hetten or violent abezetun disen letter and gentzlich to widerruffen to official documents in abgeschribener thing we henckt our Insiegel to this letter. ” In “Ervollebrief” Gefrees was already counted in 1403 to the cities listed and from the year 1444 in the series of cities and applied to the tax system with 200 guilders. Even more crucial to suggest the built in 1427 and separated from Berneck Jurisdictions office that King Sigmund confirmed by the privilege of the “neck Court with stick and boom” of Kronstadt from 1427. Most likely Gefrees has the Jurisdictionsamt 1427, if not earlier, received its town privileges. Although located in the archive at Bamberg only of the years 1544, 1586 and 1639 exemption letters for the market Gefrees, but they apply only as confirmation and all rely on earlier granted privileges. Since the administration of justice was also entrusted to urban places can probably say with certainty that Gefrees must have enjoyed at least already in 1427 urban advantages. fact that Gefrees more and more advanced, and rose to prosperity, proves the advantage that in addition to the jurisdiction and the box office was moved from Berneck in 1604 and until 1810 remained in Gefrees. In 1668 Gefrees, Berneck and Goldkronach were separated from the Amtshauptmannschaft Kulmbach and formed a separate upper office under the authority of the city advocacies, namely Streitau Stone Lanzendorf Nemmersdorf and the Customs and Umgeldamt Bischofsgruen were. directory of top bailiffs, reeves and Kastner : 1668 – Urban Laineck of Jacob. Phil Thüna 1679 BC, bailiff and forester to Röhrenhof. 1683 – John of Kempfer, Captian and bailiff. He had it made a new seal and put it Goldkronach Gefrees ago, while it was said on this before, “Gefrees, Berneck Goldkronach”. In contrast, the Gefreeser citizenship protested success that saw their rights untouched. 1713 – Johann Wilhelm von Gleichen, Privy Council chief hunter, bailiff to Gefrees, Berneck and Goldkronach. 1716 – Ernst of Gleichen, bailiff, chief forester to Munchberg and Röhrenhof. 1733 – Wilh. Aug. of Künßberg, Gentleman, Lieutenant Colonel, bailiff to stone. He passed away on 23 March 1733 in Gefrees and was buried here. 1761 – Georg Phillip Sigm. Reitz of stone. 1770 – Johann Joseph Albrecht von Schirnding. 1771 – Karl Wilhelm Axel Mart Field, secret council 1772 – Karl Friedrich Ernst von Reitz stone. 1778 – Friedrich Ernst Freiherr von Schirnding. 1796 – Karl Phillipp Kaspar Freiherr von Reitz stone from the house Regnitzlosau. Royal Prussian district director of Wunsiedler circle. After the handover of the Principality of Bayreuth, the Bavarian royal house königl. the Prussian Justice Office Berneck was organized to Gefrees to the royal court and land associated with the administration of justice and the administrative management. On 6 January 1812 the District Court Gefrees “first class” by His Majesty the King was the same as the seat of Bavaria Gefrees determined. bailiffs and Amtskastner: 1463 – Lorenz Fursveh. About him is mentioned in Ellrodt: “At the home of No. 76 baker Theobald Haberstumpf is above the lower window of the living room: Anno Domini Christ 1463rd Fursveh Vogt of the market “. 1497 – Hans Rubbed stone. 1526 – Hans Siebenwurst. This comes ahead of a directory to the Tenth Gefrees (Siegenhof) and wounds Bach 1534th 1530 – Hans Lotz. 1542 – Cunz button. 1547 – Hans Goering. 1552 – Hans herring. 1580 – Caspar Seidel. 1590 – Mathias Holstein. 1599 – George Schweser. 1603 – Kilian Schmidt. 1606 – Albrecht Khuefner. He has issued a bill of sale on the New Reuther Hammergut and still occurs in the parish register for 1613. 1620 – Georg Schmidt, the son of Kilian Schmidt. 1621 – William Wohlfromb (the original form of the name Wolfrum, which is widely used today in our area). 1643 – Georg Schmidt. 1646 – Hans Christof Schuessler. 1649 – Michael Auerbach. 1653 – Andreas Wagner. 1666 – Christian Plechschmidt. 1672 – Christian Strobel. 1672 – Ludwig Wolf Auerbach. 1686 – Phil Ch Goering. 1707 – Joah. Recd. Roth Koeppel from Wunsiedel. 1723 – Math Jak. Ellrodt, son of the pastor M. Phil Andr. Ellrodt. 1724 – Henry throat. 1762 – George James. Throat. 1778 – Karl Maximilian planner. 1782 – John Adam Kek. 1801 – Georg Friedrich Walther (königl. Prussian chamber magistrate, he was said to be a very capable public servants). 1801 – Georg Gottfried harvester (First Chamber Clerk – Christian Gottfried Höpfel second chamber bailiff). 1810 – Christian Friedrich Walther (administrator of the second chamber office location). At the time when Ellrodt wrote his works, the royal officials of the Rent-Rent Office Gefrees was a gentleman from Schärtel Marktschorgast.

Sources of income in the local area:

In his subsequent Ellrodt also touches on the sources of income in the local area. Here he leads among other things, the “coal burning” on. In addition to the “bad luck scraping” it belonged to the principal employment of our ancestors. However, it forbade King Ludwig of Bavaria to seven years. Ellrodt writes, “of the peasant Sebastian Popp Cremitz even now owning justice to be able to gather the bad luck in a closed forest districts, still reminds us of that time.” About the Mining following is reported: “Viscount Frederick IV angelegentlicher desire was it, not only to ensure the maintenance of his subjects, more and more, but also to promote the prosperity of his country more. He therefore directed his attention to mining and therefore sought from King Louis to get permission to open gold and silver mines and may possess the peculiar Baier in 1323. That also in the area of Gefrees the mining was eager would already evident from the fact that Burggraf Friedrich’s mountain courts to apply the mountain Invoking the unprecedented ruled that kept his “Mountain Day” to Gefrees and Goldkronach and below the upper mountain and rooms court Wunsiedel and White City was . ” MJ Will, pastor of Creußen, boasts in his “paradise of the excellent German Fichtelberg” the prolific silver mines in Gefrees. He claims that this branch has contributed much to the increase of the market. In a description of Goldkronach including the tunnel is given on the “hope in God” in Mark’s Pond on the road of Gefrees to White city. Perhaps this was the tunnel, the pastor Will has meant “when the knob hammer on the grace of God,” because the market pond near Tannenreuth where the knob hammer to have located, was at the time Ellrodts still an open manhole on a beholzten hill. Even when there was already Zettlitz 1477 and 1483 Lübnitz mines. Why the silver mining was stopped in the area, also Ellrodt could not answer. Never evidence was provided that it would have lacked the yield of the ores.

The ecclesiastical history of historians saw this:

The religion of the original inhabitants of our area consisted in the worship or Slavic pagan idols. Their prestigious priests and priestesses were by members of the Emperor Claudius suppressed in Gaul celtischen priests Order of Druids, who had settled in our area. They taught the people about you power of the immortal gods, the stars and their course, about the world and the size of the earth and concerned the “public and private sacrifices.” But they were also natural lawyers, and soothsayers, to which they sought refuge with diseases and alongside the Council also received herbs. Except for the “good” God Belboc and the “evil” God Zerneboc they also worshiped as the god Radegast of war, of which the names of nearby towns Schorgast, Leugast and Trebgast were derived. Their sacred places were named after the language of the Slavs “Köstel” or “Kosicat”. Hence the “Kesselberg” may have his name, where was worshiped the god of thunder “Percun”. Perhaps here also looks Böseneck the origin of its name, because this god was also worshiped under the name “Ozek” or “Osek.” the introduction of Christianity: “After a long time the shadow of sad darkness was on our regions that arose already several centuries before, “writes Ellrodt,” the friendly dawn of evangelical light on the shores of the Rhine. “Even in the second and third century episcopal seats were established there. Charlemagne, the eradication of pagan Gotzendienstes has had particularly at heart, and later built 14 churches in Franconia to facilitate the Christian teaching and to receive the sacred order of Christianity. He donated several dioceses – including Wuerzburg (742), which these 14 churches were subordinate. Emperor Henry II to the then in 1007 our then assigned districts nearer the Diocese of Bamberg was. From that time on, our area may have been accorded more importance also – even the buildings have been promoted. Gefrees reached in this way finally in the 12th Century in the possession of a chapel. In order to establish a separate parish, will probably have lacked the means. This “community” was assigned to the Diocese of Bamberg and thus the care of the parish Schorgast. The claims of the parish Schorgast to the local branch church was then made moot because of a “Instrumentum NOTARIALE” in Munich shows that the pastor to Munchberg, Heinricus Töpher, had the parish official rights of the chapel Gefrees appropriated for a long time, but this has not been granted from Bamberg. The arbitration of the dispute looked like this: “It is hereby that the chapel there for a Gefrezz with the inhabitants and belongs to the residents of the hamlet Newengereut, Wuntenbach and Zedlitz to Prochialkirche Marktschorgast and must be resturirt of the Pleban to Munchberg then. “The pastor Münchberger Töpher did not appear at the meeting, maybe he already suspected the unfavorable outcome. Marktschorgast then had a large sphere, because in addition Gefrees and Streitau were also Benk Berneck and under the supervision of the local pastor. Later complaint letters proclaim but from the fact that Gefrees was very neglected by this priest in Marktschorgast, although he. Bishop of Henry III had been enjoined. All insistence of Gefreeser to own a pastor remained unheard and not infrequently they had six to eight weeks set aside the Word of God. Strange priests who went on the way, and the afflicted donated spiritual nourishment and consolation were therefore received with joy. After repeated requests was not remedied by counseling, to pious noble religion friends tried to order two morning masses by renowned donations. Been through various foundations then the next morning Mass even a “fair means” read. The chaplain of Marktschorgast was all Sundays and feast days, and every Wednesday and Friday to keep “guilty” of worship here. The path he took from Marktschorgast to Gefrees, called the “Pfaffensteig” or “Pfaff mountain.” How Ellrodt noticed should not have been without means, the church or the church office. Many Edler has around later this parish even money “aufgeborgt” and it pledged its property. Especially the Hirschberg did excelled here. Gefrees The Reformation of the community and their separation from the Catholic Mother Church Marktschorgast. As the Principality of Bayreuth was close to the Vogtland, the rapid spread of the Protestant religion was promoted. In addition, says the historian, “Even the highest dissatisfaction with the immorality and gross criminal debauchery was opened the same input more willingly than the people already prepared by enlightened men and receptive. Already in 1489 strove Theodor Morunger, pastor to court against the Roman Catholic religion, so that he himself traveled to Nuremberg to the legate Payrand Raymundo, who was commissioned by Pope Innocent VIII, from the abundant treasure trove Germany by proclamation of the Jubilee and sale of the sin-indulgence to bring money to Rome to work against himself. Even in our neighborhood drove the drain-dealer of the Messenger Payrand her senseless beings. Add Munchberg John Grohman preached to the end of the Jubilee 1489: “The door to heaven is open, hurry, buy drain of sins, blessed and holy is the worst scoundrel is when he has paid. “the said pastor Morunger met the excommunication of Payrand, because he had to pay for his temerity with a nine-year captivity. example, the evangelical doctrine was generally joyful entrance and also the cruel severity of the bishops, including a Neidhard of Thungen (Bishop of Bamberg), it was unable to avert this collection. The first Protestant preacher in Gefrees was the curate John Gangloff. After the Reformation, was the parish Gefrees, according to a description of the priest Hofmann in 1580 from the markets, and 12 villages, each four yards and a remote area, 245 hearths, seven mills and 899 persons who received the Holy Communion. That of the Protestant church Böseneck five houses and as many families in the cath. Schorgast church remained, therefore, came when they were subjects of the sky Kroner nunnery and the territory was taken beyond the Ölschnitz of Bamberg claim without reason by the Schleifenbächlein represented the boundary between the Bambergischen and of Bayreuth. With Gefrees has dissolved the religious association with Marktschorgast at the same time also Streitau. Then Streitau was gepfarrt to Gefrees and this church was under give until it in 1577, on 10 November, now has its own parish law. As the reason for separation from Gefrees is stated that the then minister Hofmann, the call of the Lord of Wildenstein on Schlopp, his ward Junker Wallenrod who, suffering from the plague, lay in Streitau dying, not fulfilled that the Holy. Supper to hand, so that the same had died without having received this. Said guardian has subsequently requested that there should be a separate priest called to the Sustation funds from the manor Streitau were offered. But they reserved the right of patronage, which the men exercising Wallenrod also to 1728. According to purchase letter of 14 February 1728 has namely Margrave Georg Friedrich Carl the brothers August Moritz and Georg Heinrich Sigmund Wallenrod their manors bought to Streitau (called the “old and new Kemmath”) and placed a high princely pension administration and appointed the clergy itself and called. To the “new Kemmath” belonging castle was established in 1745 as a residence of the priest, while the the “old Kemmath” belonging castle served as the official house. A castle outside Streitau (the “new construction”) – Price 1300 florins – was demolished in 1750 and the official statement made it. From the 14th May 1831 was left to the office building of the community as a school. gepfarrte Also later after Streitau before and after Schorgast Falls Village was bound by the report of the minister Hofmann “after the Reformation to the local church and the St. Sacraments brought in this. “25 people of this place have communicated in the local church. Same pastor complained in his report on the vastness and difficulty of his parishioners. Literally, he wrote, “and ask thereto the prescribed Pfarher concerning the resort, because in the parish weitleuftig and large, Darzu also very troublesome is that they wanted to do gnediglichen regulations so Ime want to be associated with the time a deacon, because it places him concerning also has good opportunity to make a deacon khente be entertained easily union. ., such as uff also held visitation likewise zweyen years ago by a newable allhie also advise of the hern visitators has been asked and sought after “At the same time the pastor complained about his house: that he had not even a Stutorium (Studierstübchen). In a letter about the poor condition of the parsonage he did this then also known. directory of the clergy until the time Ellrodts at the local church of St. John Baptist: 1498 Jacob Gutt (the last Frühmesser before the Reformation). 1530 Hans Gangloff (Frühmesser and Pfarrverweser, was the first Protestant clergyman here). 1546 Nicol Sella. 1550 Wolfgang Wolf. 1552 Nicol Conrad. 1574 Johann Hofmann from Gefrees. About himself wrote the priest: “In his youth, he has his stutia erstlichen started Wunsiedel bey the Midsummer Mathesio and Gerogio Strobelio. From thence he was gethun conditions Hoff and local diß been 5 years long dispute bey the praeceptoribus John Berger, Cotemanno, Schlemmero and others. After this will come even further and Schlakenwald been diß local Zwey year. By then I’m coming up with a Viscount of Schlakenwald, Hein Nickarto Rico, and to Wittenberg for a time famuliert. “For two years he was to heritage village in the Palatinate janitor and Cantor. Later he went into the married state, and came as pastor in 1566 after Ecker Village. Under him the church cemetery was built in 1594. 1596 Matthew M. Gemlich from court. 1614 M. Linhard merchant. 1622 Seidel M. Zacharias, the son of a mayor Hofer. 1627 M. Johannessen widower, an exile from Amberg. 1633 John M. Georg Vogler from Pegnitz. 1635 Johann Georg Wagner from Zeilera. 1638 M. Christian Faber (Schmidt). Son of the local bailiff Kilian Schmidt. 14 days after his wedding did this on the pulpit of the beat and he died on 5 June 1638 with his brother, Georg Kastner Schmidt Gefrees. In the baptismal register is about him: “Is baptized 21 His Aug. Tauftodt Is the illustrious term Hochgeborne Furst and Lord, Lord Christianus, Margraf of Brandenburg hoflager be just dazumahls here this had been the Gefrees and deer on the time. “1638 Johann Reinel from Selb. 1655 M. Jacob Ellrod from Kulmbach. 1671 M. Phil Ellrodt Andreas, born in Wunsiedel, was the son of the previous pastor. 1716 Johann Valentin lovers. 1727 Wilhelm Ludwig Neumann. 1750 Samuel Christopher Carner from Wunsiedel. 1763 M. Carl Friedrich Kurz villages. 1775 Christian Albr. Christoph Sunday. . Johann Michael Füssel 1786 1826 then came a man and as a priest in the service of Kaptielssenior Gefreeser Church, to whom we owe this historic estate – Anton Christian David Ellrodt. He was born on 29 Born December 1776 in Wunsiedel. His father was the vicar and his grandfather Andrew David Ellrodt the Superintendent in Wunsiede, M. Johann David Ellrodt. He attended by 1792 – 1797 and graduated high school in Bayreuth from 1797 to 1799 in Erlangen. On 24 November 1807 he received the Vocation as a deacon to Berg nd was royal Saxon priest in Sparberg. 8 December 1814 he was appointed pastor of Goldkronach, where he 28 September 1824 and the Dekanatsverweserstelle 25 March 1825 Distriks the schools inspection has been transferred, a position he held until September, 1828. In 1826, on 4 January, the parish Gefrees he was given, he 14 to Managed April 1831, when he died suddenly of a nervous shock. On 17 the same month, in the afternoon by 14 clock, his solemn funeral was held. Words of exhortation and consolation spoke at his grave from the Dean Jahreiß Berneck and pastor of Streitau Sauber, which then also up to 31 Acted as October of local Pfarrverweser. Also present were Sutiosus Lenz (Gefrees) and Dr. Frederick Layritz (parochial vicar in Pommersfelden). Protestant The all-day school in Gefrees bears the name of Jacob Ellrod – an ancestor of our Christian Anton David Ellrodt. Jacob Ellrod (he wrote himself at the end with “d”) was incorporated on 7 Born November 1601 in Kulmbach. His father, also named Jacob, and was a tailor. On 17 December 1654 received Ellrod as pastor unexpectedly after the Vocation Gefrees – held at St. Thomas (21 December) his first sermon and moved on 7 March 1655 the parish. He was the successor of John Reinel who had endured much in the 30 years war, was plundered and fled to stone. Until his death Ellrod priest remained in Gefrees. This was the 28th Juli 1671. For some time before his son Philip had been committed as a result of his illness Adiunctus. Ellrods grave is no longer available, a grave stone does not exist.

Wars and unfortunate incidents:

After Ellrodt, in his work on various gifts and endowments, which we will not go into detail, he also dealt with unfortunate incidents (especially in the chaos of war). He writes: “Since the main road to Bohemia and Saxony Gefrees goes through the middle, this place has in every war, with whom he came in contact, understandably, more than the more distal localities suffered. He was, therefore, since its existence very often the sad lot of the looting and devastation bestowed. ” It would also can provide a not insignificant military history: the most inhuman and most destructive wars were certainly the Hussites and the Thirty Years’ War, whose cruelties posterity forever with horror and revulsion will look back. Ellrodt did not know it, however, that there should be more abominable wars later, where the population may not have suffered less. When the Viscount and later elector of Brandenburg, Frederick had taken over the I. commander role against the Hussites at the Diet of Nuremberg in 1422, inflamed them. Wütendster in revenge against him, what his unfortunate subjects had to pay a great extent Even before this irritated enemies arrived, filled horror and dismay those affected. Houses and estates were abandoned and surrendered the incident ends. The first horde under the field-colonels Procopius Rasus 25 January 1430 von Plauen penetrated into court and Franks, had traces of murder and bloodshed behind. Our area and our location met this misfortune. within a few days the places “husband village, Kotzau, Weisdorf, Conrad Reuth, G r ü nstein, G efrees, looking stone, Helmbrechts, monk mountain, Berneck, White City” were in ruins and the deplorable inhabitants were scattered or slain, dragged into slavery, or died from grief and misery. In Melkendorf the enemy, from which he took his devastating failures in the outsourced environment. Kulmbach and Bayreuth was burned down (along with castle and church) in ruins. The rage of the enemy against monks and nuns was especially directed. These were either placed on iron and doused with cold water. frozen to ice and miserably tortured to death, or throwing them into the fire and let it slowly like the ox roasting on a spit. Grief and misery which befell the time of our local residents are not to describe. Resistance was futile, since the Hussite army consisted of 50,000 foot soldiers and 40,000 horsemen. The misfortune of these hostile flood was greater, than the most troops trains of the United Netherlands, Mainz, etc. who stood in the years 1421 to 1427 against the Hussites, the local friends brothers treated almost worse than enemies, and Upper Franconia robbed and plundered before yourself the real enemy could only see. Our country would have been spared perhaps, the Hussites had not been challenged to speak of these federal brethren to exercise the right of retaliation to them. Only when they felt the powerlessness of being able to offer any resistance this devastating power, was understood to victim compensation. For example, the Margrave of Brandenburg paid 9000 guilders and the Duke of Bavaria 8000 guilders. Finally, it was the Hussitensteuer what those places had to contribute, or who had not suffered enough. Still bleeding the deep wounds that had beaten our Oberland this Hussite, nor were ashes not cleared away and the tears of unfortunate not dried, as Margrave Albrecht Achilles by Duke Ludwig of Bavaria, the Bishops of Würzburg and Bamberg, and the King of Bohemia was involved in 1461 in an unfortunate war that devastated so much of this country that was no more than the hut of an old man next to the one torn down by the Hussites monastery of St. Jobst seen between Bayreuth and Nemmersdorf. This war induced the citizens Wunsiedler Fritz Leubel, the festivals Fahrbach at Wunsiedel to inhibit the devastating turn of Bavaria out of patriotism for his country to build. Peace of Prague at St. Bartholomew’s night in 1463 ended this feud their limits. The year 1525, in which the peasant war by the “Coin Rare gang” broke out, touched our area with a punishing hand. Also greenstone and Wasserknoden have participated in this rebellion and were therefore burnt and torn down. Not long the country enjoyed the blissful peace, because after 23 years, the ill-fated hostage of the war rose back above this country. Albert Alcibiades did not know the duties of the national father, but felt happy only in the satisfaction of his warlike passion. The innocent subjects were rewarded amply by these his atrocities committed against neighboring states. Also Gefrees and its surroundings became a victim of the enemy revenge, which should actually apply to his prince. The Jacobitag 1553 was on which the local inhabitants on the rubble of their homes weeping tears of blood. The combined against Albrecht troops who had to siege the fortress Plassenburg at Ködnitz taken up quarters, laid the market including the church, rectory, school and town hall, from anger, to have found out the place in ashes. yet were Gefrees as well the other patriotic towns, villages and spots on the floor, when the tocsin of war shook the country again and brought in a desperate situation which was not to describe. The Thirty Years War began with the year 1618. And spared himself the friend of the friend not to plunder and devastation. The following copy of a Council Minutes of 1654 will shed light on the fate of the market even more in the Thirty Years’ War: “Although to our wide union Marckt in these dreysigjährigen war essentially grind beedes of Keyserl. been angedrohet to corrupt and Swedish overpopulate with fire and sword, because what happened in the year of Christ 1632 by General Marches de Grana, after which he assumed the Residentz Beyreit city, the surrounding Oerter beedes gestecket in fire, and partly gebrandschatzet Our Market 500 Rthl . must be arson, which we still owe and gave the interests of every year. Furthermore: after that the first Decemb. at night between 2 and 3 clock is Ob. cone joke occurred with 200 Croats, and plundered the whole Marckt totaliter and ruiniret follows that every several citizens still living in his lebszeiten can not overcome. So gehauset with the people discussing the nit to describe it sufficiently. Ao. 1633 18 Whether it is January. Marcus also Corpes which so soon gestecket and burned, which indeed he raise with Grosen uncosten and owe back into the country in the coming Fouri of Michel Maders mill has Rantzion and Contribution of us come Rthlr 300. we still owe money baar. After this Lord is Ob. Gordon who commanded to Eger, coming ebenerer has mass about 200 thalers. get. Ao. Whether 1634. Reichloeitz located at 200 Croats in Wunsiedel that the same shape of our Marckt in 200 thalers. get ihne all billeting, contribution and other harm suffered, which nit to erzehlen to the length possible. as well as to pass after the Swedish international. Ao. 1640 Hr. Whether. General Pauer 150 thalers. (= Ransom) Rantzion give, and the poor and weiln guarantee nit can be trusted more, seeing a soldier jedlicher want to have only alhero Come and money differently, the market in 14 weeks been quite dull. Ao. In 1641. As Hr. General Pauer gone with his army auff Regensburg, all found only with alhier gewest taken away, so that no one happened to stay in aufbruch Häußern Can. But while we praise God nor Christian hearts found that. Ourselves and our Marckt been looking beförderlichen loans with money, so that all the time Marckt of fire was erettet As we thank the God of love hearts, probably under the same roof still remained the most theil our Marcktes, the unexamined homes everywhere by unzehliche Einquartirung been devastated or verödiget: So a jedwed alive hausleit the time of his life to do this sufficiently has to ensure that such widerumb may be placed on the former state, but otherwise are anjetzo at all totaliter gone to ground Häußer 23 Like all dero haußleut departed with death most part by the hostile incursions seelign get hungry sword and terror. ” In 1643, wrote the then Amtskastner Georg Schmidt, are on 8 Occurred in July 2000 men here have fed and are then broken into all the houses, they have plundered and spared only the rectory. In 1640 are 12 March invaded the Swedes. Even the priest fled to Reinel stone and remained there until 14 September. On this day, then the first child was baptized again. He already had six children baptized in his exile. The village Kornbach must have been completely abandoned several years, because in 1634 comes in the parish register of Bishop Green (where Kornbach was gepfarrt) only one child before baptism, then no more until the year 1652. Even the neighboring community Wirsberg has immensely, especially on 1 February 1633 suffered, as Croats collapsed in 1000 under the leadership of the cruel Corpes and shot under the door the Cuntz ward as well as the Vogt Hans Steeger. After they looted the place, they set fire to it in many places. except the castle, the church and the parsonage were still burning 46 houses and 25 barns from. In Seven Years’ War, which also spread over our area, the local residents were again very tested, but not leaving this such consequences as the previous one. The French War from 1806 to 1813 was indeed waged against the innocent residents is not nearly as cruel as the previous wars, nevertheless the local area had to make war supplies through the fearful masses by marching troops, so that many previously prosperous citizens perished and house yard and had to leave the creditors. Gefrees the market itself, also threatened in this war, the greatest danger of perdition. 9 July 1809 gave the Austrians, reinforced by the troops of the Elector of Hesse, with the French, under the command of Marshal Abrantes, between Böseneck and Gefrees a big skirmish (known as the “Battle of Gefrees”). If the French had won here and pursued the Austrians by the place, it could be very dangerous for them. To be a danger, however, of the herkommenden about Lübnitz Brunswick Corps (called “the blacks”) taken in the flank and cut off the French retreat moved the fastest. They would probably still not have escaped their destruction, if not a terrible thunderstorm had favored the escape. Mothers and children returned now joyfully basements and vaults out and fled into the woods cattle were returned to the stables. A General Happy Thanksgiving rose from the heart of all the inhabitants of the happy bygone, impending danger towards the sky. For a long time were guns and bullets that were shot in their homes and later found to be retained by Bern-nuts and Gefreesern as props sad that anguished hours. The so-called Buhl, the formerly belonged to the mill box, resting six or eight Austrians and French, who fell in this battle. A plaque recalls. On the road, an Austrian buried.

The Battle of Gefrees and Berneck:

The city Gefrees held through this battle the only extant writing that had the high school teacher Dr. Hofer E. Linhardt, written in 1899. It says: “Who the graceful climatic spa resort Berneck tends either as a recreational needy or just as an ordinary Fußwanderer today, which is when a researcher in the special history of the area is not straight, hardly be known, that in this place of peace and the rest, relaxation and enjoyment of nature once wild and loud noise of war and battle cries that raged above and took place below the town of Napoleon, a not insignificant battle and indeed what was then outweighed much in favor of German arms. It is certainly something a long time ago, 90 years, but after this memorable fact is not forgotten by the people of the town, such as the neighborhood, so it is sometimes vigorously refreshed again by findings that makes the farmer while plowing and edit its fields and only too vividly remind him of the evil times of French rule. The fight, which in the area between Gefrees and the Main valley in the south bounding shell height took place in July Day of the year 1809, is in part a story of the late Consistory Ebrard (pseudonym Gottfried flames Mountain) to Erlangen, entitled “The Feilenhauer” been recovered. This part of the story mentioned above, as well as research on historical fact is what prompted the writer of these lines, to take further steps to learn the details were. The Imperial and Royal War Archives in Vienna, at which turned the author, had the kindness of to put in willingly art, the relevant material is available, to be so reimbursed in this place even more special thanks for this. , the year 1809 is the Napoleonic wars, thus significant that Oestreich own battle with France resumed and – after a number of unfavorable strayer battles (in Regensburg, Landshut, Abensberg Eggmühl so on), and after taking Vienna – under Archduke Charles in a two-day battle of the memorable victory at Aspern (May 21 and 22) erfocht, a victory that was more significant than suffered his first defeat on German soil in this battle Napoleon in person. Oestreicher This victory was welcomed in all parts of Germany with great joy; but it all seemed as if the lucky star of the Corsican now turn to the decline. Relying on the favorable mood-won by this success, ordered the generalissimo of the Austrian Archduke Charles army on 29 May making stronger diversions with all disposable in Bohemia forces to Saxony and Bayreuth. , the command of the Streif Corps specific to Saxony was Major General at the end, the one against Bayreuth transferred to Major General Radivojevics, and although both companies should be performed independently of each other. latter was the time of the takeover command with two infantry battalions deutschbanater border, two squadrons of lancers and 5-Merveldt Landwehr battalions due observance of the Upper Palatinate border near Pilsen. The journey to Bayreuth were on 1 June provides: 2 battalions of infantry regiment in 1371 deutschbanater border man, 1 and 2 Tabor Landwehr battalion together in 1605 man, 4 Königgrätzer Landwehr battalion of 732 men, 2 Chrudim Landwehr battalion of 488 men, 1 Exkadron Merveldt Uhlans 120 horses, 1 train of Reserveeskadron Schwarzenberg Uhlans 38 horses, 1 train of Reserveeskadron Rosenberg-Orsini Chevaulegers 30 men, 1 train of Reserveeskadron Blankenstein Hussars 25 men and 4 dreipfündige guns So together 4196 men, 213 horses and 4 guns. The 10th June was fixed to the exceeding of the limit and Radivojevics instructed to send in the advance into Bayreuthische a proper detachment about Asch and Plauen to elicit the conjecture that from the Vogtland is a column in suits. After the limit has been exceeded, he issued en date Thiersheim 10 June 1809 a proclamation, met on 11 June Bayreuth and took possession of the city. The cavalry reconnoitred out immediately after the occupation of the city up against Bamberg and Nuremberg, while a department yard advancing on the road to Leipzig to Gefeell, but without being aware of something the enemy. On 16 June Radivojevics informed the commander of the indented in Saxony Corps Major General at the end of his arrival in Bayreuth and congratulated him for the occupation of Dresden, which was done on the same day as that of Bayreuth. In this letter, he praises the good mood of the population and the warm reception which had found its troops of Bayreuth. Of 16 to 27 June was the corps under constant conditions in Bayreuth. On 27 June took Kienmayer cavalry general in command of the corps of Major General in Saxony and at the end about the same time of Major General Radivojevics in Bayreuth. The High Commander now decided to divide the corps at the end, and that was part of it, under the command of the latter command to Dresden and return, in another pursuit to the Bohemian border, and the remaining troops, namely a bat. Lauterbach of the Infantry, the 2nd Leitmeritzer, the 3rd Czaslauer and the 5th Polish Pottery Landwehr battalion, and also 1 Esk Schwarzenberg Uhlans, 1 Jägerkomp., 4 dreipf. Cannons and 2 siebenpfündige howitzers, then the Hessian and Brunswick troops in the strength of 700 infantry, 400 cavalry, 2 sechspfündigen cannons, 2 siebenpfündigen howitzers were placed temporarily under the command of Major Rosner from the quartermaster letter and received the command of Hainichen, Chemnitz, Zwickau, Plauen to move to the land Vogt and to contact with the lining Corps Radivojevics. By this means the opponent should be deducted from Bohemia and led to the division of his forces. On 1 July these troops arrived, without being disturbed by the enemy, to Zwickau, on 4 July to Plauen, but here was the news that Marshal Junot, Duke of Abrantes, with 8,000 to 10,000 man was on the advance of Bamberg, and that King Jerome of Westphalia, the column Rosner follow with all his power over Freiberg Chemnitz. The 5 July was used to a rest day in Plauen, and on the following day was the march on to Hof. Here Kienmayer of Radivojevics received the message that Junot was advancing against him and had already pushed back the standing Hollfeld items. Radivojevics stated further that he would concentrate his forces in Bindlach and there await the enemy. Kienmayer The column (bezw. Rosner) marched on this 7 July to Helmbrechts at Copper Mountain (or Kulmbach) the BEZW at Bayreuth. Berneck standing opponent to fall into the flank. Radivojevics of this project was agreed with the command to abide in the bottleneck of Berneck. But it was not to be! On the night of 7 8th Ran from July Radivojevics the more a message that he had been attacked, had withdrawn to Berneck, but here, too, could not hold, since the enemy threatened with bypass,. Therefore he had retired to Gefrees In this way gave the Kienmayer command Radivojevics had to, no matter what the cost, claim in Gefrees; until noon of the 8th July his troops would arrive there and support him. The proposed flank march of the column under Rosner remained so, and on 8 July before daybreak, the column marched to Munchberg to woselbst one of the main army then conducted squadron of Schwarzenberg Uhlans joined. After a short rest in this city, the march was continued to Gefrees. The vanguard, consisting of the Brunswick and Hessian troops, 1 bat. Infantry, 1 Jägerkom. 1 Esk and kept a ¼ hour north of Gefrees lying forest (at least before the hamlet Lübnitz); here she noticed that Radivojevics was attacked at that place by the enemy. The enemy held the heights behind the places Böseneck occupied while three battalions and the whole cavalry between Böseneck and Gefrees were placed on both sides of the road connecting these places. After the reconnaissance had shown that on the left wing of the enemy were only weak departments. Kienmayer ordered the bypass, and the attack of the enemy’s left flank with the whole column. The command thus received Rosner, but Kienmayer went to Gefrees to Radivojevics to where to place the front attack and conduct. ‘s attack column (Rosner) climbed from enemies unnoticed, the amount of Witzleshofen and moved from there into two closely enclosed masses on the slope towards the place by storm Böseneck step down to attack the three enemy battalions stationed there. The latter fled the approach of the storming column, and the enemy’s cavalry, which, as was mentioned above, also placed there, drove at a gallop back through the defile of Böseneck and was removed from the located in column 4 guns under effective fire. The column Rosner happened then at the Ölschnitz Böseneck, ascended the height between case and Lutzen Reuth (Kesselberg) By this means, and compelled the enemy to continue his retreat to Berneck. The panic by this sudden flank attack was the enemy so great that he fled in great haste, leaving behind many baggage of knapsacks, ammunition and two full ammunition carts. Rosner advanced with his column on the height, Wasserknoden right letting God village after Michelsdorf to bypass the bottleneck of Berneck. Upon arrival in Michelsdorf but the vanguard was aware that enemy infantry with artillery took position in Neudorf. After the valley of Berneck was completely abandoned by the enemy, the column rose from the heights down, passed not far Kieselhof (southeast of Lanzendorf) the white Main and attacked the enemy position. The enemy replied with a fierce cannon and grapeshot fire six guns, and burst forth as well as two French dragoon regiments from the ambush, the attack had given up and the retreat be commenced after Kieselhof. The night was now broken, and under the auspices drew the same the enemy back, leaving behind 200 seriously wounded rushed over to Bayreuth Creussen. Located in the center (at Gefrees) and on the left wing of the Austrian battle line tracking insignificant struggles must have taken place, since there is no closer than report. It is assumed that the enemy had already been through the bypass column (Rosner) brought to the course. The Austrian united troops were in this battle under Junot over 8 French infantry battalions (Nos. 25, 26, 28, 34, 36, 50, 75, 113), the first and 2 provis. Dragoons, General Laroche 3 Bavarian battalions from the forts Forchheim, Rosenberg and Rothenburg, also one of Württemberg’s battalion, together 8000 infantry, 1200 horse, 2 horse batteries and 10 Fußgeschütze. since the advance of Junot 8 July was a date with Jerome and combined and had the happy ending of the battle with the enemy Berneck, thwarted intention Kienmayer decided to engage in any further pursuit Junot, Bayreuth weak and occupy the whole corps to turn back against Jerome, which already advancing towards Plauen yard. 9 July occupying the Duke of Brunswick-oil of a part of his troops, the city of Bayreuth, but was instructed on 10 Evening to follow the Corps in July, only leaving an officer with a weak command of the city. Kienmayer The corps marched on 10 July from Berneck to Gefrees, 11 July, Munchberg to court, where it met with Westphalian enemy outposts, but withdrew the same. ‘s Plauen, where the Corps on 12 July was moved, the message arrived, the Jérôme be understood in rapid retreat towards Neustadt ad Orla. On 13 July were divisions of the corps to Pausa and Mühltroff, 14 July was sent forward to Schleiz, but found it Kienmayer with the fact that Junot was still in Bamberg, not advisable to follow Jerome on, but took the next Plauen position whereby he separated his opponents apart. On 16 July 1809 came news of the 12 July to Znojmo signed a cease-fire, which put an end to the hostilities, but also so that all neubelegten hopes on Germany’s liberation.

By many fire accidents Gefrees was hit again and again:

The already devastated during the war years 1450 and 1553 fire and fire and cremated Gefrees was in 1718 again victims of such a disaster. On 3 July night around a clock, broke into a house near the church fire and the church and tower and parish, school and town hall and the other 90 buildings and barns, including four guest houses, a mill, and the upper gatehouse burned from . As a long-lasting heat wave left everything to be skinny, there was no escape, even more so when even brought a strong wind. In the land register of the Bailiwick Marktschorgast following is reported about this Brand: “Anno 1718, 3 July hatt, mod 12 clock at night the weather in the old brown house, beaten and burned to Gefrees not only this house but 36 others, 50 Stadel, church, parish, school and city hall, has been miserable and terrible fire and has to 8 clock to early gewehret under the above buildings is the Kastner mathess Ellrodens been new and propres Huaß and Währe the good man just to Bayreuth. God have pity on this poor and very saddened otherwise very neighborly Leuthe and get it before us like evil. Amen. The church has been ruiniret such that completely shattered No Klokhen transition and the wall Werkh, slate and tile. The misery can not be sufficiently described here measured the 4 beautiful gasthöff with burned. ” In 1750, on 4 July broke out in a barn behind the inn “The Golden Lion” fire, whereupon five other houses were burned. On 27 September 1757 there were in the property of the innkeeper Johann Georg Glaser a terrible fire, through which 31 houses and 27 barns were laid in ruins. Nine eleven houses and barns were a fire at the first March 1815 to the victim, which originated in the House of laborer John Heidenreich in the suburbs. On 1 September 1831 were cremated in Tannenreuth seven houses. Streitau also was hit in 1683 by a fire, with one side almost completely burnt down. This fire will be laid by enemy soldiers. than 100 years ago, on 24 September 1872, Gefrees is then burned for the last time. Which at that time was very busy town thereby extinguished immensely and almost completely inhibited in its development. The disaster, which began in the suburbs, swept over Gefrees and brought the industrious inhabitants of the fruits of their industry. Fanned by a fierce autumn wind the whole city was seized by the fire, and this stroke of fate made the destitute population. The whole inner city was in ruins. The Burnt wandered around, gather up just to get the bare essentials.

Other accidents:

On 17 July 1687 early 5-6 Clock, Wall rock of Basel, Hans Georg Junker of the Romans, who owned an estate in Falls, shot to Wasserknoden the crossroads where you went to Gefrees in a duel.
On 4 June 1695 has shot Erhardt Fischer Hof Christopher Gerg Wallenrod Streitau to the Mathes Feustel. Wallenrod wanted Feustel seize a cow and would resist it because of this, he shot him. The bailiff and mayor of this committee along with 30 men, and a greater number of ordinary Bachem came to arrest Wallenrod. He had fled to the monastery Marienweiher three days and then into the free city Wartenfelsstrasse.
On 19 June there was a terrible storm in Gefrees. After church the daughter of Cunz Heidenreich Metzler Reuth that wanted to take on the way home from Auerbach’s Mill to a greenstone Vierling wheat flour, was hit and killed on the bridge at the mill case of a flash.
On 5 October 1700 was the “Black Bear” by Johann Glaser found behind the inn is a Slain child.
Magdalena Walt Herin The cook in white village was, in the judgment of the University on 15 Munchberg beheaded in February 1701.
On 23 November 1700 had the master weaver J. Bauer Schmidt Witzleshofen die out, because he had the baker Ott Fleisnitz knocked the brotherhood offered. 300 paces from the village, he received new murderous stitches.
On 2 September 1711 were a long lost yourself Pote and his companions found murdered in Asch on stage path near the “Heufleck”. The Pote had 260 florins manorial control at all times. Both were trimmed terribly. Five years ago an Italian was killed in the same place.
On 23 August 1718 wide of the armed Auer builder Georg Wagner, which his wife, at the instigation of the service and aid Andreas Petz servant with whom she committed adultery, had given poison. Both were succeeded by the court to Gefrees to Bayreuth, where they were beheaded.
On 23 August 1750 was Frederick William, farmer from Schamlesberg who had ground during the morning worship in the box mill, tucking in the cog wheel, found dead.
On 22 July 1817 dealer leash Simon Gulden was found murdered from Great Wettingen in a pond at Falls.

Also of striking natural phenomena and the Medizinalwesen reported Ellrodt:

1643 was entered into the marriage register: “Henry Tulp, Fleischhacker, and Leonh. Tulpens Rath friend and butcher dahier son has the 18 Nov. had married the daughter of Mr. Simon Schlenk guest Wirths Dahie “On the edge is noted:”.. The Praut has had four eyes “on 17 July 1782 by 22 clock at night could be felt for a few minutes a concussion in the area of Gefrees, Bishop Green, Sparneck and White City. It was very cool in the spring and summer, so you had to einheizen. In addition, there was a Katarrhfieber to which many people died. Alone in the same year they recorded 94 deaths. On 25 May 1816 were born dead by the wife of Thomas J. Metzler bird Reuth twins who had grown together from the stomach to. Chest and head were facing each other and free. Each child had hugged the other over his shoulder. Medizinalwesen Even the devoted pastor Ellrodt an important part in his work. Not least, if only because his personal friend, the pharmacist Heinrich Christian Funck, who was his contemporary. Funck is not wrongly called the “botanist of the Fichtelgebirge”. He took over on 29 September 1803 the pharmacy in Gefrees. In his spare time he devoted himself to the study of the flora of our Fichtelgebirge and came particularly as a connoisseur of mosses and ferns to fame. 1821 wanted to commit him to Berlin as professor absolutely. But he did not leave his beloved Fichtelgebirge. The man who was elected three times to the Gefreeser mayor, said: “It is my paradise, would go away sin.” In 1830 he built himself a house opposite the present city hall. When he 14 April 1839 died he was carried under the supervision of the entire citizenry to the grave. His grave monument still stands in the park next to the church cemetery.

In another part then the local clubs are described:

In another part then the local clubs and are described here as the first corpse brotherhood. This was donated in 1750 by JGM Amtskastner throat and former city clerk and Mrs G. Walther. She had the funeral of both members and those who did not belong to the local craft guild, for the purpose. The number of members was set to 30. This association continues to this day. Ellrodt writes: “The company has its head, store clerk, including Collekteur. Each member has to pay a registration fee Frankish guilders and six cruisers and two quarterly dime. If a member dies, funeral costs, not only all the body of the Brotherhood are denied to the clergy of the box office, but to the grave. Before the funeral, the brotherhood comes together in the house of the chief, is in conducte to the house of the deceased and returns after the funeral to the house of the head back immediately, where 40 liters of beer and the two cruisers bread is replaced by the relatives, without them in the least harass. For those who do not belong to the Brotherhood, but this is of demands that they carry the dead and accompany the Nämliche is observed as the members, except that the fee is left to the generosity of relatives. To immoral behavior, cursing, swearing, quarreling, brawling and recalcitrance of both the body trunk and beyond this, there is a sentence of two cruisers to Checkout. ” There were also the Corpse Societät. On 20 March 1799 this company was founded on the initiative of the late pastor Füssel. This institute consisted of 267 male and female members. For each death had to be paid per member 15 cruisers, so that Hiterbliebenen could get immediately after the death of the same 50 guilders. Under the existing laws of a member was admitted under 16 or over 40 years. This company was also a savings bank, which the less fortunate benefited from the main thing. too, a social club called, was founded in 1814. The laws of this, united to social and decent entertainment company, founded on strict moral principles. They came together only in the evening hours of Sunday and was allowed, except for special occasions, do not exceed the curfew. Impeccable manners were essential condition for admission. Games of chance and indecent or offensive calls were prohibited. The annual foundation day they met at a common meal with joyful music.

Under “Miscellen” (= Human Interest, Other) noted Ellrodt:

1601 has in Bayreuth and the local area, the plague is rampant, which was five times carried here, and also on the cell. 60 people have died this year in the parish. 1634 was during the plague of Dienstknecht Kufner from Zettlitz six days on the Haselhof in Romings barn without food and drink. Three days left to the supposed dead lie until the gravediggers of Berneck arrived to bury him. When he opened the barn, called out to him the “deceased”, “How I am hungry, give me something to eat.” This man lived a long time afterwards.

has 1655 Pastor Jacob M. Ellrodt can cause the water tube to the parsonage. He wrote about it in the church book: I have a röhr water from the Opel alley “mod p Laurentii let down lead to the parsonage with an explanation of my own money (but which I shall refund the Gotteshauß by year and day again) I was without the tube timber which worships the peasantry at my request, cost 24 guilders. Has previously been thought impossible.

1655 has the same pastor the innkeeper Daniel Schlenk assigned to the protection of the church half of the parish water under the condition that he should also take half the cost at any time.

1656 7 May the first Gregoriifest was organized by the school children and collected at the 10 guilders. 1658, there was the New Year at an extremely harsh winter, so many people froze to death.

1670 is on 20 June, a Margrave of Rome, who, because he was a Protestant, was imprisoned there four years, stayed here overnight. His goods had been taken from him. He was named Johann Baptista de Serra. The church has given him eight, four dimes, and the pastor from the Council Respiration was paid. He came from the famous Pompeyan and Gender from the then Pope Alexander VII was his uncle.

1672 on 10 May the Roman and Hungarian Majesties Joseph and his wife, along with three princes, and many great men in Gefrees stayed overnight when they went to war against France. You have all Schlenkischen Stay in the inn and had all the “Victualien” with him, so that in such little from here could be contributed. Oats, hay and straw for the horses, of which they had over 700 with them, but they are enough to have been made available free of charge. for covering the Pagage 1000 horses were needed, including the offices of court Munchberg, Stock Roth and Bayreuth had to contribute. The day before, a larger train of Pagage 1100 horses and countless cars from an early age was drawn through by 5 to 10 ½ clock continuously here.

1673 20 March, it was decided that because war riots approached and this place allenthablen was open to mount barriers and sliding bolt.

1674 has the pound beef 9 pennies, the pork 3, veal and scooping meat 6 and the measure of beer cost seven pence.

1677 both market ponds were leased , the one on the Weißenstädter road, the other on the glues pits. “The lessee shall, when fishing, let every citizen 1 pound, the advice friends 1 ½ pounds, the mayor and city clerk 2 pound carp. Even the clergy, Kastner and their companions are some of them succumbed and if sichs do could also Pertschen and pike.

1725 was agreed that in bodies of men stand so long should be tolled until the procession had entered the cemetery church. In persons of lesser citizens stand up over the bridge and at farmers until it was out of the gate.

came in 1732 on 11 April 842 Salzburg emigrants here, who emigrated to Prussia because of their religion from their homeland. 1812 vomited on June 20 night of the offertory in the local church of predatory hands by force and stole the deposit of five Sundays.

1825 was Johann Lorenz Brey because in the desert by Philip tap at Fleisnitz perpetrated arson to death and later sentenced to heavy chain punishment. In addition, public exhibition was made by the executioner servant.

After the death of Pastor Anton Christian David Ellrodt:

remained and will remain many gaps in the historical record of Gefrees. It is clear that in 1830 the number of houses had increased to 153 in Gefrees with 1498 inhabitants. Plus Cremitz 24 inhabitants, Böseneck 91, Box 10 Mill Green Stone 145, Lübnitz 70, Neuenreuth 61 single came in Neuenreuth 10 and wounds 104 Bach

The Title of “city”:

It was only natural that the Gefreeser eagerly strove to gain the title of “city”. Already on the 19th July 1826, the magistrate turned to the government of Upper Main in Bayreuth circle to award this predicate. But the request was deaf ears. Gefrees probably would still have been elevated to the city if the Rentamt still would have had its seat in place. But the Gefreeser were not discouraged and directed in 1845 for the second time to the king asking for elevation in the number of cities, but again they were rejected. With their innate perseverance they finally dared even the third attempt, and then at length came the long-awaited adoption of Gefrees: Ludwig II “After the plowed surveys had shown that the market town Gefrees, county Berneck awarded nationwide gorgeous already in 1544 municipal rights and that sameness is also frequently referred to in the previous century in official and non-official documentation as a city, we will find us on the allerunterthänigste application of that community moved to approve the inclusion of the same graciously into the class of cities. After this you have to return the reception supplements the report of 23 January ds. Js. to have the more. ” Munich, 26 February 1880 L udwig In this period of struggle for the city right there were other troubles that oppressed the Gefreeser. On 14 January 1833 burnt down three houses and four barns and the tower of the church. In 1852 there was a severe famine. A peck of grain currently cost 5 guilders and bran was baked into bread. Two people should be starved. The greatest misfortune happened, however, as already mentioned, in 1872, burnt down almost completely as Gefrees great material and career as well as almost all historical records were destroyed. Under the leadership of the then mayor, pharmacist Petzet, the community began to rebuild. His successor was the Merchant Georg Jahreiß. During his tenure (1876 – 1881), St. John’s church was rebuilt, whose foundation stone was laid on 4 Took place in June 1876. Soon the church was able to commit their inauguration. All residents had contributed to make the church more beautiful and larger than the same three previous churches arise. With the built directly on the main street of the church Gefreeser had another landmark, which it has remained to this day. When the church should be abandoned several years ago, the entire population protested against it. Not least because they remembered what hard work and sweat of the building had to drive up cost.

The era of industrialization and the machine made its entry:

The tireless efforts of Gefreeser was not the least crucial that you the king of Bavaria was named town. On 18 August 1881 died mayor Jahreiß and became the midst torn from his work for the good of this city and the inhabitants had to take of a great son farewell, who had been her first official mayor once again. , it also had to go on without him – and unshakable, they managed the progress against. As the era of industrialization, then found its way, they were almost back up to date. The persistent Fichtelgebirgler were aware at the turn of the century, that they did not lose the connection. An important new factor appeared on – the railway. The Gefreeser desperately needed connection to the railway line Bamberg – Hof, which was already released in 1848 for the traffic on the rail. from then on, namely, they feared for their economic benefits to the convenient location ensured on the important trade route. They saw in the underground line a significant competitive and in the day it showed in the following years that the trade routes lost more and more important. The beginning of the age of the machine and industrialization but also the domestic craft opened new, unimagined possibilities and the once falling ill Railway is an important starting point was suddenly in order to keep the connection to the development. especially the indigenous granite stone, which at that time still represented the livelihood of Gefreeser, recognized his unique chance from the concentrated market area emerge. already alone the construction of the railway yard – Bamberg had a great need for ungehauenen granite stones, giving a big boost to this sector brought. With horses and oxen, the material of Gefrees primarily from the construction site “Inclined plane” was transported. What it so far, that the countless, overlapping the northern slope of COTICULE boulders were crushed and processed, the reduction had to be now sorted and concentrated. It created new quarries that many people have work and food, and even from out of town workers were hired. Meanwhile, one can already anticipate this characteristic, indigenous commercial doomed to extinction. Where previously attended hundreds of helping hands for a busy life, working at the present day a handful of folks who get this commercial upright. Have as long as they have to do with because of its hardness degree once so coveted Gefreeser granite, you do not, firm, is, however, that it is the last era where Gefreeser paving stones or “Hundela” as they are called in the vernacular manufactured, . granite would be Reuth enough remain, because it is not that the companies had to stop. The misery began after the Second World War, as in this work simply no longer felt called. It started so promisingly. Where the boulders were, it was assumed in the soil and rock in the 1890s, one began to dismantle this. Geologists were certainly no Steinhauer and so suspect the pioneers who are still alive, that these quarries were not applied correctly in part by the arbitrary excavations. Heinrich Lenz and the brothers Louis and Emil Haberstumpf were the first that began in 1758 with the granite extraction. With the Schwarzbacher company Künzelmann Schedler and then came the first cable car and the company Adam Bruchner from Wunsiedel also joined them. , since the creation of monuments around the turn of the century was the rage, you needed granite. Gefreeser granite of the Reichstag building a huge monument in America was primarily known during construction. Also, the Battle of the Nations Monument in Leipzig consists in large part of Gefreeser granite. The degradation and recovery, however, were tailored to this time almost exclusively on human power. Therefore, it is still, to this day, that the extremely heavy work and sweat full of masons, stone crusher and stone clubs have shaped the mentality of the Gefreeser. Almost all exposed to adverse weather to work on granite, requiring hard work and perseverance, which made people hard and silent. Well, that has now changed – the Gefreeser are not nearly as harsh and taciturn as they often rumored. Coming back to the train: You and the granite were also in the following years closely connected and the call for a separate connection to the large line was getting louder – he just had to come. He came, though late – almost too late for the granite industry. The Gefreeser domain as the center of the granite industry no longer exists. The quarries in the Reuth however, still bear witness to an ancient indigenous guild, which will remain in the Fichtel mountain town in wistful memory. mayor and confectioner Christian Schwab, who led the fate of the city Gefrees from 1888 to the end of 1901, rubbed in the fight for the railway line Gefrees – if slowly, so he resigned from his post after completion of construction. He who had fought tirelessly for the local connection to the railway network, it could still take can claim to have been the main initiator. On 6 July 1902 it was finally over, the first test run was carried out under great “hello”. Since the foundation stone of the school building was made on the same day was celebrated in due course, this double hard way. Full Gefrees was whether these two events on the legs. Even a pageant was compiled and the city was, as it says in an old writing: “festively dressed and adorned with garlands.” On 15 July 1902 the branch railway line was inaugurated. Of course, no one at that time knew that this tremendous progress – ie Railway – should be relegated to insignificance 71 years later. The train was traveling at 30 September 1973 set. And it’s only a matter of time, how long goods are transported, which was formerly so important, because if the connection of the railway, and the granite lost the connection, the rail came just in time for the ever- more developed machinery industry. Georg Hoffritz in 1867 started the production of agricultural machinery and this company was acquired in 1906 by Charles Herold, the larger the capacity step by step. Today this company is not the only large company in Gefrees. Do not mention the importance of knife factories remain, the cornerstone of Johann Leupold was laid in 1882. Gefrees also had a large weaving (Rogler, 1862), an export brewery (1866) and a knife factory. This diverse industry has increased even to this day by another knife factory, three mills, two machine shops and a Wattelin and Schulterpolsterfarbrik. During the 20th Century the city has increased significantly. On 1 August 1926, the former municipality of wounds Bach, consisting of the incorporated towns wounds Bach, Neuenreuth and Lübnitz (then 186 inhabitants). A little later, on 1 April 1927, was the former municipality of Greenstone, consisting of the towns of greenstone, Böseneck and the hamlets of green hills and box mill (then 248 inhabitants) to Gefrees. On 1 October 1929 was disbanded in the wake of state simplification Berneck the district office. If the municipalities, Kornbach, Streitau, Walpenreuth, Witzleshofen and Zettlitz came to the district office Munchberg. On 1 July 1931, the city still Gefrees and the communities Lutzen Reuth Reuth and Metzler were added that had temporarily belongs to the district office in Bayreuth. 1900, Gefrees (without community greenstone and Böseneck) 1918 inhabitants, 1967 were 3055th Since 1905 Gefrees has a high pressure water line. The beautification of the urban landscape gave way to many familiar images. The particle stream and the Lübnitz were channeled. No future flood as in 1956 will probably scare the population. Modern school buildings were built. The Catholic church was inaugurated in 1966 their new house of worship. To cap the upward development of our municipal system was 17 May 1968 passed the city hall of their determination. it is the visible sign of the civil sense of diligence and the residents of our town. Under the current Mayor Robert Brey this building was handed over to his destination. Meanwhile Gefrees belongs to the district of Bayreuth, which is after the territorial reform on 1 July was assigned in 1972 after the citizens had opted for this step. This also enlarged the urban area, because the previously independent municipalities Zettlitz, Lutzen Reuth, Kornbach and Metzler Reuth were incorporated to Gefrees. The population was given in June 1974 4200th Now Gefrees is an emerging community that is unparalleled in its magnitude. That the Fichtel mountain town should again experience such a recovery, no idea Gefreeser our pioneers and they would have been so great optimists. Your proverbial diligence and healthy, practical mentality have to be transferred to the present generation. Gefrees is a city with history and a city with a future. – September 1974 –

Jacob Ellrod II and Weissenstadt, Deutschland



Photo shown above is the city of Weißenstadt, Deutschland (White City, Germany) and its location within Germany.

Weißenstadt is a town in the district of Wunsiedel, in Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the shore of the picturesque Weißenstadter (Weissenstadt Lake), in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains, on the river Eger, 11 km northwest of Wunsiedel. The town got its name “White City” from the landmark church, once white now weathered dark grey.

Jacob Ellrod II was born on 07 Nov 1601 in Kulmbach. His studies led him to the University of Altdorf (near Nuremberg). His main course was the theological, but he was also interested in mathematics and astronomy.

The first place he served was as Deacon (something similar to a local priest) in Weißenstadt (the White City) in the year 1633 by the year 1634, he was serving as Deacon in Wunsiedel, Germany.

In the year 1654 Jacob Ellrod II was appointed the Parish Priest in Gefreeser, Deutschland (Gefrees, Germany).

A short time later Jacob Ellrod II presented his unified calendar at the Diet of Regensburg. The so called “Middle Calendar” was completed in 1659. For his masterpiece Jacob Ellrod received a gold chain from the grace of the Emperor Leopold.

On 28 Jul 1671 Ellrod Jacob II died in Gefreeser, Deutschland (Gefrees, Germany).

Elrod DNA


Here is my Haplogroup which should be the same for all Elrod males’s in America if they originated from the first Elrod, Johan Ellrod. This shows the migration map from Africa to other parts of the world. All of the different Haplogroups begin in one region in Africa.

Eva Ellrodt’s Historical Tomb in Wunsiedel

Eva Ellrodt Wunsiedel

Eva Ellrodt

The marble grave stone shows a relief image of Eva Ellrodt. In her right hand she holds a book in her left hand standing before her is a scroll or cartouche with the inscription. On the sides of the head are the Arms of the families Elrod (over a three-mountain of a heart pierced by an arrow from the three roses grow) and Pertsch (two crossed fish).

The inscription reads: In the year 1639 29 July 3 at 3 o clock pm, the honest and virtuous women, Eva, born Pertsch, beloved wife of Jacob Ellrodt, fell asleep in her redemptor at the age 28 years 37 weeks. He will awake her to eternal joy. Amen.

Inscription continues: For I know that my Redeemer lives, and at the last he will stand upon the earth. And after my skin has been thus destroyed, yet in my flesh I shall see God whom I shall see for myself and my eyes shall behold, and not another. For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. [Phil 1, v. 21].

The deceased was born on 11.11.1619, the daughter of John M. Pertsch Wunsiedler superintendent and his wife Catherine, born a Kellermann. She was married to her husband Deacon Jacob M. Ellrodt on 11.22.1631 in Wunsiedel. (Hunter I, 3; Röttgermann 482, 3)

Hofmann & Ellrodt

Hofmann and Ellrodt 1919

Hofman and Ellrodt 2

hofmann and Ellrodt

The ad above for Hofmann & Ellrodt appeared in the American Wool and Cotton Reporter, March 1919.

Hofmann & Ellrodt were Florenz F. Hofmann (1838-191?) and Christian Ellrodt (1829-?) whose “trimmings” business at 91 Mercer St. in 1890 moved to 109 Spring St. around 1900. Both men were immigrants from Germany and both appear in the US Census of 1900, Ellrodt living in Brooklyn and Hofmann on E. 65th St. Christian Ellrodt immigrated to the US in 1852 and served 2 enlistments in the Union army in the Civil War (July 1861 to Sept. 1862, and again from Aug. 1864 to July 1865). The business arrived at 16 W. 22nd St. in 1916. By this time the original partners had disappeared. The last listing connecting Ellrodt with the business is in 1909. He appears in the US Census of 1910, a widower, age 82, still living in Brooklyn, but giving occupation as “none.” Hofmann died before 1920: his widow Emma appears in the US Census of 1920, still living with son, Emil, at the family homestead on E. 65th St. The next generation of Hofmanns now assumed control of the business, in the persons of Bernard H. Hofmann (ca.1861-?), Florenz L. B. Hofmann (1869-?), and Emil H. Hofmann (1872-?). Florenz and Emil were the sons of the original Florenz F. Hofmann. Bernard was possibly a nephew.

Emil H. Hofmann was also president of Hofmann Mfg. Co., 9-11 Maiden Lane (approx. 1910-1920), which dealt in novelties and surgical instruments.

The company’s entry in New York’s Great Industries, 1884, begins: “Hofmann & Ellrodt, Manufacturers of Cloak and Millinery Trimmings, No. 91 Mercer Street. – Messrs. Hofmann and Ellrodt succeeded the old firm of F. Hofmann, which became established in New York as far back as twenty years ago. This eminent house are manufacturers of cloak and millinery trimmings, braids, cords and tassels of every description.”

Hofmann & Ellrodt left 16 W. 22nd St. in 1919, moving downtown to 39 E. 12th St. In the late 1920s the company name changed to Hofmann & Leavy. Leavy was Edward Theodore Leavy (1894-1979), born Manchester, England, immigrated 1895, naturalized 1918. Leavy was a salesman for Hofmann & Ellrodt when he registered for the World War I draft in 1917. He appears in the 1920 US Census, living in Brooklyn with his wife Esther and daughter Doris, and giving his occupation as Traveling Salesman. In 1930 occupation is given as “Manufacturer Trimmings.” As Hofmann & Leavy the business continued at 39 E. 12th St. and then 826 Broadway (at the corner of 12th St.) until 1988. An ad from 1971 at this address boasts that the company was in its 102nd year!


In August 2007 Hofmann & Leavy were located in Deerfield Beach, Florida. Visit their website at The company is now 134 years old!

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